Fundamental of IT

  • Created by: base12
  • Created on: 06-12-21 11:25
Input Devices
Allows dara, such as text, images, video, or sound to be entered into a computer system.
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Types of
Input Device
Graphics Tablet
Biometric Scanner
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Output Devices
receives data from a computer, usually for display, projection, or physical reproduction.
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Types of Output Devices
Braille Terminal
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Biometric Devices
uses human characteristic as part of a security mechanism.
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Types of Biometric Devices
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Security is improved
If a password is exposed can use biometric as a second security
Quicker and easier
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expensive to install
affected by the environment
disabled users might not be able to use
privacy concern
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Computer Components
These are components inside your computer system.
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Types of Computer Components
Power Supply Unit
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Manage the function of a computer system by processing data and instruction.
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
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Main circuit board of a computer on which components such as the CPU and ROM are connected.
Contains PCI slots for expansion cards and ports for external devices.
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Power Supply Unit (PSU)
converts electricity from AC (Alternating Current) form the mains power supply to DC (Direct Current) which the computer system can use.
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Split into two types:
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temporary (data is lost whenever the power is turned off)
Cache Memory
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saves data even when not being powered
access when the computer is next on amd can be stored long-term
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Types of memory
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
Cache Memory
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Stored all programs that are currently running
stores part of the operating system to be accessed by the CPU
made up of large number storage locations, each can be identified by a unique address
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stored the boot program/BIOS for when the computer is switched on
BIOS then loads up the operating system to take over managing the computer
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Cache Memory
sored data that is frequently accessed
very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other typed of memory like RAM
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Secondary Storage
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Storage Protocols
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) is a protocol (set of rules) for attaching external devices to a computer system such as printer, storage drive or scanner.
SAS (Serial Attached SCSI) improvement version of SCSI that enables many more external devi
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Expansion Cards
Dedicated circuit boards
have a specific purpose and are attached to the motherboard
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Types of Expansion Cards
(can also exist as integrated components on the motherboard than a separate card)
Graphics Card
Sound Card
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Fibre Channel Card
Storage Controller Card
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Graphics Card
processes graphical data (ex. videos or animation) and converts it into a displayed output on a monitor
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Sound Card
converts analogue sound waves into digital data (binary) when inputting audio through a microphone
also convert digital data (binary) into analogue sound waves to output audio through speakers and headphones
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Network Interface Card (NIC)
Allows computers to connect to networks (internet)
enables them to transfer data to other computers
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Fibre Channel Card
transfer data between servers across a network
quick transfer speeds and is primarily used to connect data storage to servers
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Storage Controller Card
manage and use any attached storage device
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interface between external devices and the computer
allow data to be transfered
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USB Ports
Connects storage devices such as USB sticks or external hard drive
as well as inputs and other devices for data transfer (camera and smartphone)
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Firewire Port
transfer data at a high speed from devices such as camcorders and external hard drives
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SD Port
Enables data from SD card to transfer from a device like camera to the computer
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Ethernet Port
connects computers to network devices such as modem or router, allowing access to the internet
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Data transfer to external HDD, SDD or optical drives
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Micro SD Port
data from micro SD card to transfer from devices such as smartphones, tablets and handheld games consoles to a computer
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Computer System Types
Embedded System
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Bulky and not so easy to move
individual components can be upgraded over time
versatile, carry out a range of activities
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Tablet/ Laptop
screen size can be restrictive
can be transported through public space loss or theft is more likely
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negatively affect social interaction
reduce spatial awareness
easily lost or stolen
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Embedded Systems
installed within a larger device
have a dedicated purpose and often run in real-time
Internet of Things (IoT) global network of connected objects
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very powerful computers that are reliable
process large amount of data and is used to solve scientific and engineering problems
reliable and secure and have large backup capabilities
very expensive and require experts to oversee them
used in banks and air
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experimental and in development
work with quantum bits (qubits) which are not limited in just two states
millions of times faster
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Wired Connections
Wireless Connections
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Wired Connection
Copper Cables
Fibre Optic Cables
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Copper Cables
poorly insulated and therefore susceptible to electromagnetic interference
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Fibre Optic Cables
Very fast but expensive
signals are transmitted as wave of lights through a glass tube.
are not affected by electromagnetic interference and suffer less attenuation.
higher bandwidth but more fragile
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Wireless Connection
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short range communication between devices - 10 mitres
close ranged but there is no other hardware is required
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requires devices to be in direct line of sight
short distance
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large area via microwave towers
must be in line of sight of each other with no obstruction
affected by bad weather leading to higher chance of attenuation (network distortion)
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line of sight and no barriers
connect up to 2km but bad weather severely affects the transmission rate
used in space
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point to multipoint communication
distance is quite far there is a delay of transmitted data.
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GSM (global system of mobile communication)
phones connect to a network
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Communication Hardware
create or link together networks allowing data to be sent between computer systems
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receives data packets from a connected device and transfer a copy to all connected nodes
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receive data pocket, processes them and transfer them on to the device specifically listed in the destination address of the packet
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send data across the telephone network
telephone lines can only transfer analog signals
used to convert computer's digital data to an analog signal
another modem does vice versa
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transfer data packets between network
data is sent from network to network towards the destination address
stores address of each computer on the network and uses routing tables to calculate the quickest and shortest path
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Wireless Access Point (WAP)
link between wireless and wired networks
creates a wireless local area network that allows wifi enabled devices to connect to a wired network
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Combined Devices
hybrid device
provides the functionality of multiple communication devices in a single device
more expensive, more adaptable - if a router fails it might still be able to function as a switch/wireless access point
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Network Interface Card (Network Adapter)
internal piece of hardware that is required for the computer to connect to a network
built directly into the motherboard (known as network adapter)
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Hardware Troubleshooting
troubleshooting - analyse and solve problems with a computer system
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Steps to take when an error occurs
identify the problem
create a theory
create a troubleshooting plan
finding document
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Troubleshooting tools
Event viewer
Power On Self Test (POST)
Ping Test
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Types of software
open source software
closed source software
off-the-shelf software
bespoke software
embedded software
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Open source software
source code is written by programmers
users can view and modify the code
EX: linux, python and firefox
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Customised to the organisation's need
unwanted features can be removed
shared in the public domain
low in price
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security risk - malicious code
prone to errors
difficult to receive support as development is often distributed
require technical skills to adapt sources to maintain the code
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Closed Source Software
code is restricted for users to view or modify
EX: microsoft office, fortnite, spotify
also known as propriety software
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well tested, update will generally be secure
company can be held to account
developers will provide help/support
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rely on the company to provide updates
not free
cannot modify, debug or improve code
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Off-the-shelf software
made for general use
EX: office software, video games, image editors
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Tested thoroughly, features will work as expected
cheaper to purchase than bespoke software
user might be familiar with software and trust the company
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expensive to purchase some software
requires yearly licenses
contains additional features that users/organisations may not need which can be redundant to the performance
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Bespoke Software
custom made for specific organisations or users
expensive to commission
issues with right for
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built to the company's requirements
unwanted features can be removed
design and layout can be customised
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expensive because its tailor-made
required training when using
original programmers may need to maintain the software to fix errors
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trial the program for a limited time
limited offer to choose whether to buy it fully or not
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freely available to download and use
allows the user to try the software and then encourage them to purchase a full version
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Embedded Software
installed within a larger device
dedicated purpose and often run in real-time
memory and storage restriction
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Application software
Productivity software
Development tools
business software
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Productivity software
general use software for completing tasks accurately and efficiently
EX: word processors, presentation software, web browsers
Database and spreadsheets
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Development Tools
tools for creating or modifying software
Integrated development environment (IDE)
EX: translator, compiler, debugger
developing and maintaining websites and apps
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Business Software
Specific software for business (bespoke)
Design packages such as CAD/CAM
project management software for collaboration
expert system for automatic decision making
Management Information System (MIS)
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Utility Software
dedicated programs for maintenance and organisation of computer system
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Antivirus Software
locate and delete viruses
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manages incoming and outgoing network traffic
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rearrange the files so that all parts are together
improve the speed of accessing data
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decrease the size of a file
more files can be sorted
sent more quickly across a network
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Types of
Input Device


Graphics Tablet
Biometric Scanner

Card 3


Output Devices


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Types of Output Devices


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Biometric Devices


Preview of the front of card 5
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