Genome project

  • Created by: Hindleyc
  • Created on: 13-04-19 11:21
What are genome projects
projects to determine the entire DNA nucleotide base sequence
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Idea is to
map the DNA base sequence that make up the genes of the organism and then to map these genes on the individual chromosomes of that organism
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In this way what is it a complete map of
all the genetic material in an organism (the genome) is obtained
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What has sequencing projects read
genomes of a wide range of organisms including humans
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What do they sequence
every base (3 billion) large task yet only took 13 years
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What is it impossible without
bioinformatics which is science of collecting and analysing complex biological data such as genetic codes
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what did they use
computers to read store and organise biological data at a much faster rate than previously and also utilises mathematic algorithms to analyse and interpret biological data
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What does determining the complete DNA base sequence of an organism use
the technique of the whole genome shotgun sequencing NGS seq
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What does it involve
researchers cutting the DNA into many small easily sequenced sections and then using computer algorithms to align overlapping segments to assemble the entire genome
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What are sequencing methods such as these therefore
continuously updated which along with the increased automation of the processes involved have led to extremely rapid sequencing of whole genomes
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as a result of seq the human genome what is the result
many medical advances have been made eg quick idenfitfication of potential medical problems and for early intervention to treat them and establish evolutionary links between species
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What has greater practical importance to humans
not the genes themselves but the nature of the proteins these genes code for
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What are these proteins known as
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General definition
all the proteins produced by the genome
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However as a protein is only produced when a gene is switched on and genes are not switched on all the time was is a more specific definition
all the proteins produced in a given type of cell (cellular proteome) or organism (complete proteome) at a given time under specifies conditions
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what are there differences in
the ease with which we can determine the genomes and proteomes of simple and complex organisms
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What does determining the genome of simpler organisms allow
sequences on the proteins that derive from the genetic code (proteome) of the organism to be determined
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What may this have
many applications including the identification of potential antigens for use in vaccine production
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In more complex organisms what does the presence of non-coding DNA and of regulatory genes means that
knowledge of the genome cannot easily be translated into the proteome
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What are sequencing methods
continously updated and have become automated
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what are the genomes of 1000s of prokaryotic and single cells eukaryotic organisms currently being
sequenced as part of the human microbiome project
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What is hoped that the
info gained will help cure diseases and provide knowledge of gene that can be usefully exploited eg ones from organisms that can withstand extreme/toxic environmental conditions&so have potential uses in cleaning up pollutants/manufacturing biofuels
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Why is determining the proteome of prokaryotic organisms like bacteria relatively easy
the vast majority of prokaryotes have just 1 circular piece of DNA that isn't associated with histones, there are none of the non-coding portions of DNA which are typical of eukaryotic cells
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What does knowledge of the proteomes of organisms like bacteria have
a number of applications
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wat can be identified
those proteins that act as antigens on the surface of human pathogens that can be used in vaccines against diseases caused by these pathogens
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In the case of vaccine what can be manufactured
antigens and then administered to people in appropriate doses
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In response to antigen what is produced
memory cells which which triggers a secondary response wen the antigen is encountered on a second occasion eg malaria
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HOW many genes in human genome
20000 although this number is constantly being revised down as our techniques for identifying genes improves
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What is problem in complex organisms
translating knowledge of the genome into the proteome
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because the genome of complex organisms contains many non-coding genes as well as others that have a role in regulating other genes
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In humans what is thought
as few as 1.5% of genes may code for proteins
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What is the human proteome project
currently underway to identify all the proteins produced by humans
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What is there also a question of
whose DNA is used for mapping as all individuals except identical twins have different base sequences on their DNA
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What will DNA mapped
differ if only slightly from everyone else DNA
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Idea is to


map the DNA base sequence that make up the genes of the organism and then to map these genes on the individual chromosomes of that organism

Card 3


In this way what is it a complete map of


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What has sequencing projects read


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What do they sequence


Preview of the front of card 5
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