GEOGRAPHY paper 2 section B

  • Created by: Davina1st
  • Created on: 08-02-20 14:29
Define development
Positive changes that improve things for good
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How does the Clark fisher model explain changes in industry as a country becomes more developed?
As a country develops: primary decrease, secondary peaks at industrial time,tertiary is highest in post industrial, Quaternary begins to appear
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How do you know if a country is developed?
if it has grown economically, the GNI increases. Standard of living and quality of life improve
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What is an economical measure of development? explain fully
GNI- Gross National Income, total value of goods and services produced by a country plus money earned from and paid to other countries
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What is the GNI per capita in an LIC? What industrial sector?
$1045 or less, primary sector
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What is the GNI per capita in a HIC? What industrial sector?
$12,735+ tertiary and Quaternary increasing, post industrial
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What is the GNI per capita in a NEE? What industrial sector?
$1046-$12735, industrial to post industrial
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What are the BRIC countries?
Brazil, Russia, India and China
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What are the MINT countries?
Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey
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How is GNI used to compare countries?
GNI÷total population=Per capita, Currency is in dollars to eaily compare each country, also adjusted for each country based on income, LIC goods cost less so wages will go further than in a HIC
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What does infant mortality show about a countries development?
High infant mortality means more deaths of children under the age of 1, so there are unmet human safety needs.
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What is HDI? Where are the UK and Nigeria placed?
Human Development Index, UK is 0.90 and Nigeria is 0.50
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What are the three measure that are combined to give a number between 1(the best) and 0 (the worst) on the Human Development Index?
GNI, Life expectancy and Education (literacy rates)
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Why can GNI sometimes be a misleading way of measuring a countries development level?
In NEE's and LIC's, people are often farmers, so industry is cash in hand so can't be measured properly, people lie about earnings, data is hard to collect because of wars/disasters, errors happen. Conversion rates to dollars change
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What is a limitation of using literacy rate as a measure of social development?
Squatter settlements and conflict zones make it difficult to collect info about education
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What is a limitation of using people per doctor as a measure of social development?
Rural people in India often use mobile phones to get healthcare advice, so it doesn't count as seeing a doctor.
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What is a limitation of using access to safe water as a measure of social development?
Flooding or poor pipe maintenance can reduce the quality of the water, rising costs of water may force people to use unclean water, official date may underestimate this.
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What is a limitation of using infant mortality rate as a measure of social development?
Many births in LIc's are no registered, children are buried in unmarked graves, official data doesn't take this into account
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What is a limitation of using birth rate as a measure of social development?
A reliable measure but data can be affected by policies such as China's one child policy
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What is a limitation of using death rate as a measure of social development?
Less reliable than births as younger populations tend to live in LIC's, despite poverty and less healthcare they are less likely to die than older populations in HIC's.
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What is a limitation of using life expectancy as a measure of social development?
Data quality can vary and wars, natural disasters and disease can affect figures in the short term. HIC life expectancy has risen but may decrease due to high levels of obesity, but it is not less developed.
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What does the Demographic Transition Model show?
DTM shows birth rate, death rate and total population change over time and as a country develops economically
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Give an example of a country at each each stage of the DTM?
1= Rainforest tribe 2=LIC's Afghanistan 3=NEE,MINT,BRIC 4=HIC, France, UK, USA 5= Japan Italy, Germany
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As a country develops what happens to the age of the population?
As a country develops, there are less young people and more old people.
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What is development gap?
The difference in standards of living and well being between the worlds richest and poorest countries
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Consequences of the development gap can lead to inequalities in...?
Inequalities in health and wealth
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What is migration?
A movement from one place to another
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What is forced migration?
People that have been forced to flee/escape their home country due to political unrest, war or a natural disaster. They have no choice but to be safe and move to another country
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What is international migration?
Movement from one continent to a different one, it is usually between countries or continents
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What is economic migration?
Someone who moves permenantly to a different country to improve their standard of living, they search for a better paying job and more money.
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Name the strategies used to reduce the development gap
Investment, industrial development (tourism), sustainable/intermediate technology, fair trade, debt relief and micro finance loans
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What is investment and industrial development?
TNC's invest money and expertise in LIC's to increase TNC profits. Why? Cheap labour, saves money to spend on other thigs, Looking for new markets, spread their business, Reducing transport costs, goods made close to where they're sold
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How has investment and industrial development reduced the development gap?
Breaks cycle of poverty, factory creates employment, money goes towards schools and infrastructure, population is better educated and healthier, opportunities for further investment, shops and community facilities. repeats
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What is a TNC?
A company that has operations (factories, offices research and development) in more than one country e.g. McDonald's or another brand
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What is aid?
When a country or non government organisation, such as Oxfam donates resources to another country to help it develop/improve.
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What different types of aid are there?
Money and loans, emergency supplies, foods like rice and wheat, technology, skilled people like doctors.
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How does aid reduce the development gap?
Aid can enable countries to invest in development projects such as roads, electricity and water, brings many long term benefits, helps improve quality of life and standard of living.
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What is Goat Aid from Oxfam?
Project to help families in Africa, like Malawi. The money is used to buy the families a goat which provides milk, butter and meat.
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How does Goat Aid improve peoples quality of life and raise the level of development in Malawi?
Excellent food source, improved health=work, fertiliser on crops, increase crop yield=money, milk can be sold=money, breed easily, offspring sold=money
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How have google provided aid?
They have part funded 'The One Laptop per Child' project. Free laptops to teachers and students in Africa
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How will aid from google help to reduce the development gap?
LIC's and NEE's benefit as the laptops help with education, breaks the cycle of poverty as people have education, jobs = money and better standard of living
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What is intermediate sustainable technology?
Sustainable technology is for the needs skills, wealth and knowledge of local people. It is appropriate
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What is an example of sustainable technology in Africa?
Afridev hand pump by Water Aid
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How is the Afridev hand pumps provided by water aid intermediate technology?
Knowledge/education improved as less children off school because of illness(dirty water). Involves local people
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How does intermediate technology reduce the development gap?
Involves local people, like the afridev, people can be healthier, work harder and develop their country. Life expectancy increases due to no further diseases like cholera... Education improved children are in school not ill
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What are tariffs?
Taxes paid on imports on goods
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What are quotas?
Limits on the quantity of goods that can be imported.
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How does fair trade ensure that producers in poor countries get a fair deal?
Farmer gets all the money from the sale of their crop, it guarantees the farmer a fair price for his crop, part of the price goes to local community projects, farmers farm in an environmentally friendly way, product gains position in global market
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Why do people not buy fair trade products?
They cost more money, if less people buy them, less farms and villages can be part of fair trade.
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How does fair trade help to reduce the development gap? (Sameena in Pakistan)
She stitches fair trade footballs, she didnt have enough money to go to school, but now she has enough money to let her sisters go. #when she needed a serous operation, she could afford it as she belongs to the fair trade health care system
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What is debt relief?
When the G8 joined, they agreed to cancel the debts of many Highly Indebted Poor Countries. To qualify, they needed to manage their own finances, show there was no corruption in their government, agree to spend saved money on education etc
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How has debt relief helped to reduce the development gap?
Tanzania: money saved was spent on importing vital food supplies in a time of drought+free education Uganda: spent money to provide safe water to 2 million people=healthier people...
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How do micro finance loans help?
Grameen Bank in Bangladesh lends $200 US dollars to village women to buy a mobile phone. Loan can be repaid an borrower makes a small profit, phones keep them safe.
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Case study of tourism to reduce the development gap?
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Where is Tunisia?
North African country on the Mediterranean sea
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Why is Tunisia a popular tourist destination?
Hot summers and warm winters, french speaking as french colonial reign ended in 1956, Dorsal Mountains and Sahara desert, Star Wars filmed there
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Impact of tourism on Tunisians development gap?
370,000 jobs created, local markets, agriculture, taxi and hotels benefited from tourism, now one of the wealthiest countries in Africa, healthcare has improved, life expectancy 42 in 1960 to 75 now. Schools compulsory for girls, more people educated
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Is tourism a sustainable strategy for Tunisia?
Two terrorist attacks in 2015, no longer safe because terrorists object equality for women. Sewage from hotels leaking into beaches, no proper system
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ow many jobs have been created by the tourism industry in Tunisia?
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Name 4 industries that have benefited from tourism
Agriculture, taxi services, hotels and local souks (markets)
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How has the increase of wealth in Tunisia affected life expectancy?
Since 1960 the, life expectancy has increased from 42 to 75 years old
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Why have literacy rates in Tunisia increased from 66% to 79%?
More families can afford to send their children to school and even university
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How has the increase in jobs and more connections to other places and cultures benefited women?
Schooling is now compulsory for girls. Women are entering higher education in increasing numbers
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Why is Nigeria important regionally?
Largest population in any city in Africa, highest farm output in Africa, Lagos=main financial centre of West Africa. 'Nigeria is critical to the rest of the continent' Barack Obama
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Why is Nigeria important globally?
One of the MINT countries, fastest growing economics of 2014, supplies 2.7% of the Worlds oils (12th largest produce), 5th largest contributor to UN peacekeeping missions around the world
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Describe the political context of Nigeria(timeline)?
1960- independent from UK, 1967/70- Civil war, corruption means money isn't spent on improving SoL 1999+- stable government 2011/2015- Free elections
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Describe Nigeria's social and cultural context
More than 500 different ethnic groups, with their own languages, generally Christian North and Muslim South. Rural to urban migration has broken down some barriers between ehtnicities but they keep their own cultural identity
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Asses political positives and negatives
Negatives- Boko Haram Positive- controlling ebola 11,000 deaths worldwide but only 8 in Nigeria, excellent healthcare and planning. Extremely good considering they have the largest population
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Describe the cultural context of Nigeria (Music,cinema, literature and sport)
Darey= musician Nigerian idol judge. Nollywood is a large film industry. Daniel Fagunwa was the first African winner of the Nobel Peace prize for literature. Africa Cup of Nations, Nigeria won 3 times. 36 medals in Glasgow commonwealth games,football
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Describe the environmental context of Nigeria
North East is semi desert, south is ropical grassland, used for grazing cattle and groing crops like cotton and groundnuts. South Nigeria= high rainfall, high temperatures, crops like cocoa, palm oil and rubber.Hard to keep cattle,tsetse fly,parasite
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Explain how an increase in the manufacturing industry can stimulate (encourage) economic development - positive multiplier effect?
Nigeria manufactures more of its own goods, less need to import,cheaper goods,people buy from Nigerian countries not foreign. Formal economy,more taxes to government=better infrastructure and healthcare
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What is the case study for a TNC in Nigeria?
Shell in the Niger Delta
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How does Shell benefit the Nigerian economy?
Direct employment for 65,000 Nigerians, providing 250,000 jobs in Inudstries using the oil, more taxes etc. Shell makes large contributions in taxes to government= better infrastructure.
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How does Shell cost the Nigerian economy?
Frequent oil flares=pollution=illness, less people working, less taxes etc. Smaller catches of fish due to oil spills, subsistence farmers suffer as they feed off what they catch.
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Overall, is Shells investment in Nigeria good or bad?
Good in short term because of jobs, taxes, money and improvement to country. Bad in long term due to pollution, loss of biodiversity.
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Nigeria was part of the British empire, what is it part of now?
British commonwealth, African Union, ECOWAS(Economic Community of West African States), UN peacekeeping, OPEC (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
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How is Nigeria linked to China?
China $10 billion investment in finding and drilling in a new Nigerian oilfield=taxes,employment etc Helps China as they are a fast growing economy so they need resources from abroad to keep going.
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What is one political factor causing change to Nigeria's links?
Past- ruled by Britain, now- part of many unions, African Union, ECOWAS
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Define the two types of aid
Emergency aid- Responses to Gorkha, blankets and tents. Developmental aid- googles one laptop per child
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Why does Nigeria need aid?
Over 100 million people in poverty, life expectancy is only 50.
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Explain the impacts of different types of international aid
Aduwan health centre, Northern Nigeria did not have a health centre. There was high incidence of HIV and high infant mortality. Received funds from World Bank for a health clinic built in 2010. Tests for infections, immunising against polo
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Two arguments for aid
Projects that develop clean water and living standards, can improve sanitation and quality of life, aid helps to rebuild livelihood and housing after a disaster
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Two arguments against aid
Sometimes aid is a loan and not a gift, poorer countries may struggle to repay and end up relying on donor countries, sometimes projects don't benefit
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Explain how economic growth, mining and oil extraction, can have harmful impacts on the environment
Oil spills=fires=gas=acid rain. Soil erosion due to mining, Bodo oil spills (2008) pipeline leaks=11 million gallons of crude oil spilt over 20km
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Explain how economic growth, urban growth, can have harmful impacts on the environment
Traffic congestion=air/noise pollution... waste disposal is and increasingly larger problem with increasing population
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How has quality of life improved for Nigerians?
Better access to safe water and sanitation, imporved access to a better diet means higher pro
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How does the Clark fisher model explain changes in industry as a country becomes more developed?


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What is an economical measure of development? explain fully


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