Geography Unit 2A

  • Created by: Amy_5639
  • Created on: 11-04-18 10:54
1.What is urbanisation?
The growth of the proportion of a country's population living in urban areas
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2.Where is urbanisation taking place most rapidly?
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3.Describe the trend of urbanisation in HICs.
Slow rates of urban growth, many people are migrating from cities to rural areas for a better quality of life
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4.Give three push factors that lead to rural-urban migration.
Natural disasters, war, desertification
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5.Give one factor, other than migration, that causes urbanisation.
Natural increase- it's normally young people who move to cities to find work, then they have children in the cities, which increases the proportion of the population living in urban areas
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6.What is a megacity?
An urban area with over 10 million people living there e.g. Mumbai in India
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7.Describe how industrialisation can lead to economic development.
As industries develop, more people move to urban areas to work in the factories-there are more jobs and better wages in rural areas
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8.List two environmental challenges caused by urban growth.
Air pollution, sewage and toxic chemicals can get into rivers harming wildlife
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9a.Give a named example of an urban planning scheme in an LIC or NEE.
High rise dwelling approach to improving the lives of squatter settlement residents
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9b.Explain how it has improved the quality of life for the urban poor.
People don't have to live among waste, clean water is piped into every home, sewage pipes take away human waste, industrial areas are away from residential areas
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10a.Using a case study of a city in an LIC or NEE, describe the economic opportunities offered by urban growth.
Mumbai- more employment opportunities e.g pottery industry, jobs in cities offer high and more reliable sources of income
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10b.Describe the social challenges that have been caused by rapid urban growth in that city.
Reducing unemployment and crime, high volumes of traffic, limited access to services e.g schools and healthcare, open sewers causing diseases, limited access to clean water
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11.Describe the distribution of population in the UK.
It is very uneven-major cities like London have a very high population density whereas upland regions like the north of Scotland are sparsely populated
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12.Why are most cities in the UK found in lowland areas?
Because they are easier to build on and have a milder climate than upland areas
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13.Describe how you could identify the rural-urban fringe on a map.
On the edge of a city, has farmland and open spaces as well as new housing developments, look for white spaces showing fields mixed with more built up areas
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14.Explain how urban change in the UK can lead to opportunities.
The importance of green space is being increasingly recognised, development of innovative transport solutions, redevelopment presents opportunities for new investment
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15.Explain how urban changes in the UK can lead to deprivation
Rural-urban fringe under pressure from development, derelict land in inner cities provides brownfield sites, deprived areas are linked to poor access to health care,education and job opportunities
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16a.Give the reasons why regeneration was needed in a named area.
Birmingham=UK's second largest city, has 750,000 visitors each week, located fairly centrally in the UK so needs good transport infrastructures, has five major universities, 31,000 companies, experiences lots of migration mainly from Asia,
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16b.Describe the main features of an urban regeneration scheme in that area.
Grand Central=36 new escalators and 15 lifts, new train station (HS2) can handle 300,000 passengers per day, designed around the flagship John Lewis, created 1000 permanent jobs
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17a.Explain how migration has influenced the character of a named UK city.
It's given birmingham city a rich cultural heritage and has seen the development of successful multi-cultural communities, growing prosperity and confidence
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17b.Describe the social and economic opportunities that urban change has created in that city.
Economic=Creation of 50,000 new jobs mainly in construction, 600,000 metres squared office space and transport links e.g HS2 in Eastside, John Lewis store created 650 jobs. Social=Improved public spaces e.g. Brindley Place, 2000 new homes in Eastside
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17c.Describe two challenges that urban change has created in that city.
Urban sprawl into green space with travel congestion, housing built in old industrial areas costs a lot more
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18.What is urban sprawl?
The unplanned growth of urban areas into surrounding countryside
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19.Describe two ways that development is putting pressure on the rural-urban fringe.
Large housing estates means that open spaces are lost and ecosystems damaged or destroyed, when large areas or rural land is lost when they're built on this causes noise and air pollution as well as traffic congestion
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20.What is a commuter settlement?
Places in the rural-urban fringe where the majority of the population leaves the town each day to work elsewhere
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21.Describe two possible negative impacts of a village becoming a commuter settlement
New housing developments can affect the character of rural settlements, demand for houses increases house prices
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22.What does sustainable urban living mean?
It means doing things in a way that lets people living now have the things they need, but without reducing the ability of people in the future to meet their needs
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23.Describe how water conservation schemes can help make a city more sustainable.
Only as much water should be taken from the environment as can be naturally replaced, so water conservation schemes reduce the amount of water used making a more sustainable city
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24.Give two examples of energy conservation schemes.
Promoting renewable energy sources, making sure that new homes are built to meet the minimum energy efficiency requirements
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25.Explain the importance of green space for sustainable living in an urban environment.
They provide naturally cooler areas, encourage people to exercise more, make people feel happier, reduce the risk of flooding by reducing the surface runoff from rainfall, reduce air pollution
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26.Describe how waste recycling can help make cities more sustainable.
More recycling means fewer resources are used and less waste is produced. This means that less waste will be sent to landfill, which is good because they are unsustainable and release greenhouse gases
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27.Give two economic problems caused by traffic congestion in urban areas.
Can make people late for work, delay deliveries by lorries which can cause companies to lose money
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28.Describe two different ways that public transport can be used to reduce traffic congestion in urban areas.
An Underground system takes 3 million passengers off the roads every day, self service bikes are available to hire which reduces pollution
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29.Give three strategies for managing the traffic flow in urban areas, and explain how they work.
Ring roads keep traffic away from the city centre making it safer and less polluted, parking restrictions make sure parked cars don't block traffic flow, flexible working hours help spread out traffic through the day avoiding congestion at rush hour
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2.Where is urbanisation taking place most rapidly?



Card 3


3.Describe the trend of urbanisation in HICs.


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Card 4


4.Give three push factors that lead to rural-urban migration.


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Card 5


5.Give one factor, other than migration, that causes urbanisation.


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