Global Development

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  • Created on: 30-09-16 16:53
What is meant by good change
economic growth-an economy getting bigger. economic development involves a change in economy . economic growth means a rise in living standards and less poverty. social aspects are education, democracy, health, human rights, gender equality,
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what is a combination of economic and social factors
eradication of poverty
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measuring development
economic well-being referred to as gross nationl income (GNI) measured in per capita (per person per population)
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economic growth doesnt cover all aspects of social development. rise in GNI doesnt mean rise in standard of living.
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GNI is just an average
doesnt mean rise in standard of living for all it's members
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GNI only counts what happens in the official economy
doesnt count food grown for ones consumption.
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economic growth is unlikely to mean sustainable development GNI can be accompanied by problems
such as crime rates and the loss of a community as well as environmental degradation.
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social development
education: percentage of school age children attending school. health-children mortality rates, maternal mortality rates, number of doctors and hospitals in relation to population. democracy -free elections. gender equality-differences between gender
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The human development index
three aspects: education, health (life expectancy), material standard of living. country score between 1 and 0. highest score is 1. Norway, Australia and Switzerland at the top. Lowest ranking Niger, Democratic republic of congo.
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how many countries have high human development
102 countries, 43 have low human development. of the 30 lowest 27 of the countries are in Africa.
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measuring poverty
whole countries measured by GNI. not by individuals and households as different measure is needed GNI can only give an average. Millenium development goal of having the proportion of people living in extreme poverty by 2015.
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Amartya Sen
global development is about overcoming poverty because this allows people to develop their potential
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Modernization theory suggests some countries remain in poverty due to their development barriers. Do you agree?
Stages of Rostow Model of Economic Growth: Traditional society-substinence., Pre-conditions for take off-western values begin to take hold such as new technologies,roads and birdges , take off-new class , drive to maturity, high mass consumption
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cultural catalysts
cultural more important than economic changes. developing countries need "modern values " to make progress. three sources share these values education-, mass media-Lerner- media is a powerful tool in the impact of social development and urbanisation
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values should be universal, meritocratic systems and individual achievement.
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The Millenium development goals
set by UN as targets for the world to achieve by 2015. by the end some goals had been met but it was clear some would not be met
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three worlds
first world- industrialised capitalist world- USA, western europe, japan, Australia, New zealand. Second world: industrialised communist world - the Soviet union, eastern european satelittes.
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What was the third world
central and south america and the carribean, africa, asia, the middle east
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North and South (west)
The developed countries in the North, the undeveloped in the south. The west is the most industrialised countries
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Where was this used? (North and South)
Brandt commision recommended strategies to reduce world poverty in 1980
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Problems with the north and south divide
The countries don't all fit neatly into the geographical pattern for example Australia and New Zealand are in the south but in term of development belong north.
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Majority and Minority worlds
Majority refers to the third world as two-thirds of the population live there. minority refers to the rich world as only privileged minority have high living standards.
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Developed and undeveloped.
Undeveloped refers to a country being poor but has the ability to catch up. Underdeveloped refers to the country being exploited by the rich world/
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more economically developed countries (MEDCs), less economically developed countries (LEDCs), Least economically developed countries (LLEDCs).
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The bottom billion
Paul Collier used bottom billion as many parts of the third world had some degree of developmeng. the remaining problem is the lack of development in Africa and in other countries who face war and other factors.
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Paul Collier
referred to the 58 countries as "Africa plus" and the population accounts for a sixth of world's people. economic growth brings progress on social indicators so the world needs to concentrate its efforts on the countries of the bottom billion.
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What did Collier say about the Millenium Development goals
it was misguided as the focus needs to be on the bottom billion only.
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cultural barriers
Talcott Parsons identifies features which are hinderence "underdeveloped countries are backwards looking" it inhibits social mobility
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economic catalyst
an intervention by richer countries was crucial primary barrier to development is lack of money which means no money to spend on infrastructure.
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two ways of getting money
overseas development aid- gifts and loans from rich countries in form of money expertise and technology. foreign direct investment -foreign countries build factories in developing countries downside of this is it would trickle down to people buying.
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economic barrier to development
is a closed system as not enough economic capital for the country to develop. lack the funding to develop.
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pros and cons of modernization theory
pros: some parts are more developed than its counterparts. con: government is corrupt. it is a big generalisation say all countries are countries are superior. poor countries refuse help from rich countries.
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first world, second world and third world heirarchies
first world-capitalist, second world-communist , third world-excluded in the cold war and poorest area
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The second world crashed down when?
after the collapse of the soviet union
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Advantages of the heirarchy
The heirachal structure is a simplification and recognises the differences that are non-economic
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Disadvantage of the heirachy
an oversimplification and its ethnocentric
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the nothern and southern divide
North-most industrialised. South-least industrialised.
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Critics of the northern-southern divide
The heirarchy is geographical and australia belongs north but is located south
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majority & minority
majority-the poor, the minority - the rich
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strength of the majority - minority
Ignores the geogrhical references and overly politicised language of development
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other conventional types
former communist countries- Eastern europe, newly industriliased countries-brazil and mexico, more economically developed countries-britain, japan, USA, least economically developed countries-Niger, Sierre Leone, The congo.
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measuring poverty
Gross domestic product-the number of good and services a country produces. GDP/population
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critics of GDP
doesnt distribute wealth within a country and can cause further inequality. ethnocentric seeing wealth associated with well-being.
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Human development index
calculated by the UN on education, wealth and life expectancy to score between 0 and 1.
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Advantage of Human Development Index
doesnt reduce development to one particular factor.
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Disadvantage of Human Development Index
is blind to inequalities.
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Associated with World Bank, Transnational Corporations, Structural adjustment programmes.
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When was neoliberalism introduced??
1970s by Peter Bauer and Milton Friedman
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How does development work according to Neoliberals
should follow path of the rich but not by adopting the same path and should reject help from the rich .
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What is crucial to development?
Trade, creating a free market so government involvement is reduced. Red Tape and Taxation reduced where possible Adam smith "invisible hand " to supply and demand,.
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what is underdevelopment according to Neoliberals
trade restriction. A great deal focused with the government in the majority world.
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What hinders growrth
trade centred policies. Bauer-approach make countries stagnate by preventing change. Aid-seen as improving corrupt government and breeds dependency
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What do neoliberals aim to do?
create countries which attract Transnational corporations.
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Evaulation of Neoliberals :weaknesses
Have great emphasis of the free market however have a misguided view.Privatisation of public services leave poor people locked out of health care and education etc. Structural adjustment programmes throw local producers into market with no health law
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Evaluation of Neoliberals: Strength
Great economic principles and influential views.
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Evaluating of modernization theory : Strengths
Countries can develop as much as britain doesnt matter about starting points, countries which have adopted modernization thory have genuinely improved quality of life.
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Evaluating modernization theory : weaknesses
If all countries were as developed as Britain we would need 8 times the resources, Some countries appear superior, reproduces inequalities, ethnocentric approach, government corruption, countries are resistant to change,
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overdependence can cause damage to the environment.
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Evaluation of the dependency theory :strength
impracticality - modernization theory suggests that building factories will help economies but theres more factors that impede development. B
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Evaluation of the dependency theory: weakness-
says a lot about development being impossible due to the history of colonialism and doesnt say much about solutions , role of homegrown elites- Western companies gain access to satelittes through elites in these countries,
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weaknesses of dependency theory
creation of infrastructure-colonialism provides basic infrastructure for many satelittes countries - was it that bad? Benefits to developing nations- success of tiger nations was from heavy funding in Japan
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conducted an analysed concluded that exploitative relationships are due to capitalism
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when was dependency theory introduced?
1960s. Marxist approach "view from the south" poverty isnt natural
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Mercentaile capitalism
began 700 years ago. Colombus -merchant explorer set out to discover trade routes. Local leaders were bribed. Informal trade networks established.
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informal relationships formalised. European powers took direct power over countries of majority world. Spain and Portugals conquest began in the 15th century
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Economic colonialism
Economies from agricultural to production of raw materials. Small industries collapse as they cannot keep up with mass productive industries.
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Geopolitics colonialism
the colonial powers claim states in the territories they had claimed. this broke families apart and forcing together groups with nothing in common. Governance systems wre established with corruption
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Cultural colonialism
cultures undermined and knowledge destroyed. The European powers saw them as inferior so they forced more "civilized" way of life.
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19th and 20th centuries saw a process of decolonisation because Europe pulled out of colonies. This caused the illusion of exploitation being removed. Nation state replaced with corporations as the exploitative power.
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industrialisation results in environmental damage with three themes: toxins get reeased into the atmosphere such as air pollution. overuse of resources. loss of biodiversity
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people centred approach
model has links with Gandhi. modernization fails to explain how the world is changing
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what did modernization theory and dependency fail to explain?
the world is changing.
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who is the theorist behind people centred approach?
David Booth developed the theory impasse highlighting the reasons fo the theories failures.
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What did the theory impasse say about failure of modernization theory
globalization-not all accept this but brings about debates. Environmentalism-industrialization causes environmental damage. failure of development- In 1960 and 1970 development was occuring 1980 was lost decade and it took a step back.
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postmodernism and development
Marxist have an idea about development western valus and social evolution are explained.
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The worlds system theory
Wallertsein 1970 - heirarchy of developed and least developed countries
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whats on the heirarchy
the core (the developed), the semi-periphery (the Brazil and south Africa), the periphery (
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are barriers internal and external according to the world system theory
external emphasis as capitalism doesnt respect national borders.
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why do economies fail according to Frobel?
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people centred approach ; development is based on
sustainability -using resources and local knowledge. participation - communities get involved, set own goals and make decisions, justice- democratic decisions -involving all groups particularly women. meeting basic needs,
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What is people centred approach known as?
"Grass roots development" "Bottom Up" approach refers to the people centred development
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What does environmentalism focus on
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post development
1990s. Development criticsed as being ethnocentric. western nations seens to be too superior. Arturo Escobar - changes are neded but argue cant be no universal model and people must be involved.
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pro of people centred approach
improves the lives of people however doesnt bring them out of poverty.
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features of neoliberalism
privatization- selling to private companies-free market. cutting subsidies - as this will reduce the need for dependency , getting rid of "parastatal " government such as marketing boards through which government regulates production. cutting taxes
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assessing neoliberal policies weaknesses:
Center for economic and policy research compared 1960 to 1980 with life expectancy, mortality rates, literacy and education. report found progress greater before 1980
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what havent neoliberals found?
no evidence to support claims that the Washington Consensus is the best route to development.
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Economic globalization : Features
media, technology, communication, global, money , capitalism, consumerism , free market.
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growing interconnectedness between countries, regions and people as the same consumer goods, brands stretch across the globe.
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Frobel et al
sprwad of TNCS and improvements in travel and communication changed the earlier pattern
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1) Spread of capitalism
Chinese moved from state control to adopt capitalist system
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2) The growth and strength of TNCS
make same products in many countries.
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3) Mcdonaldization
effiency, control, calculability, predictability
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4) finance and money markets
financial events affect everyone banks and money move quickly.
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cultural globalization
spread of western values
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main feature
world sport, communications and information, world tourism, equality, cosmopolitan lifestyle, global patterns e.g mcdonalds.
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strengths of cultural globalization
communication - social media e.g mass diversity new cultures., ensures equality
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weaknesses of cultural globalization
resistance to change- causes conflict. some countries block connections.
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political globalization
when government action takes place globally such as welfare of citizens are acted open
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what is economic growth
growth of the economy. increase in goods and services.
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pros of political globalization
access to aid and support. world peace. reduces risk of invasions . smaller countries work together. government learn from each other.
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cons of political globalization
influence goes down for state nations. big countries shape decisions. expensive to speak to one another. countries slow down decision making processes,
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theories of globalization
globalists believe that globalization exists: has an effect on people, nation states ar being eroded. it is having an impact on organizations, culture is being eroded.
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globalization produces tolerant citizens,
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what is a combination of economic and social factors


eradication of poverty

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measuring development


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GNI is just an average


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