internal validty
The research measured what it intended to
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face validity
‘On the face of it’ it appears to measure what it intended to
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construct validity
The measure is not too narrow to represent what is being measured
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criterion validity
It can predict related future outcomes
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concurrent validity
The results of one measure have been confirmed against one or more other established measures of the same thing
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external validity
The results can be generalised…
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population validty
can be genralised to target population
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ecological validity
results can be generalised to …to the real-world situation the researchers were investigating
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internal reliablity
The procedure/ measure and results are consistent
9 of 55
split half reliablity
The participants score similarly on the two halves of a standardised self-report (i.e. questionnaire) which is split after they take it.
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inter rater reliablity
The observers record the same results in the same way when measuring the same participants at the same time.
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external reliablity
The procedure/ results are replicable
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test retest reliablity
The same participants when tested using the same measure at a second point in time, get a similar result.
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observer/ researcher bias
The researchers only record what they find interesting/ analyse the data in a way which fits with their expectations.
14 of 55
demand characeristics (bias)
The participant guesses or is aware of the aim/ researcher’s expectations, and changes their response to meet the expectations or to rebel against them.
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social desirablity bias
The participant gives a response because it is socially more acceptable/ they’re worried their real response would be negatively judged.
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ethnocentrisum (bias)
Cultural bias, i.e. a measure designed for one culture is applied to another without adapting it, the sample only represents one culture, or a theory assumes universality (that it applies to all cultures) without testing it.
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zeitgesit (bias)
Results are ungeneralizable across eras in time.
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sampling bias
The results are ungeneralizable because the sample was more representative of one sub-group of the population than another, i.e. in age, socio-economic status, occupation, gender…
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observer/ researcher effects
The researcher influences the participants’ responses.
20 of 55
order effects
Taking part in one condition will affect results of the other condition in a repeated measures design, i.e. because of boredom, fatigue (tiredness) or practice.
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methodological issues- standardisation
keeping everything the same
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methodological issues- control
A variable which has been kept the same for all participants so it can’t affect results.
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methodological issues- confounding variables
A variable which has not been controlled and has affected the results, reducing the validity.
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methodological issues- extraneous variables
A variable which may have affected the results.
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methodological issues- generalisability
The results can be applied beyond the sample/ test environment.
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methodological issues- representativeness
The test environment/ sample reflect what the researchers intended it to.
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methodological issues- individual differences
Participants’ unique traits, upbringing, and experiences which influence responses.
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methodological issues- quantitative
numerical data
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methodological issues- qualitative data
descriptive data
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methodological issues-case study
A study of one or a small group of individuals, in-depth, using a variety of methods to gather more detailed data.
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methodological issues- longitudinal
A study which measures the change in responses over time.
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methodological issues- snapshot
A study which measures responses at one point in time.
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methodological issues-attrition
Participants dropping out after consenting to a study.
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ethics - deception
Making participants’ believe something that isn’t true.
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ethics- consent (informed)
Participants’ agreement to take part- should know what the study is realty about before agreeing.
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ethics- confidentiality
Protecting identifying info about participants, i.e. anonymising (removing names)
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ethics- observation (rules of)
Researchers may only watch people in a public place, and cannot record without consent.
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ethics- withdrawal
Participants can leave the study at any time without being put under pressure to continue.
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ethics- protection from harm
Participants are kept safe from emotional distress and physical injury.
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ethics- advice
Researchers only give information they are qualified/ expert enough to give and refer participants to professionals if they need further information.
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ethics- debreif
Participants are given the full aim at the end of the study and the researcher checks they have not been harmed.
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debates- free will
choice of responses
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debates- determinism
no choice over responses
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debates- holism
Considers multiple factors influencing responses, and how they interact.
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debates- reductionism
Considers a limited number of factors influencing responses.
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Assumes the current environment/ people around the individual is influencing their responses.
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debates- individual
Assumes the person’s unique upbringing, biological and personality traits, and experiences are influencing their responses.
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debates- nature
Genes/ what you’re born with causes responses
49 of 55
debates- nurture
Environment/ upbringing causes responses
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debates- socially senstive
Research which may be used in a negative way by society, i.e. to discriminate against, or manipulate, people
51 of 55
debates- usefullness/ applicablity
Research which can be practically applied, i.e. in developing treatments/ changing the way we educate people, or enhances our understanding of something.
52 of 55
psychology as a science - empirical
Testable/ responses can be observed
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psychology as a science- falsifiable
There is a way of proving the theory wrong
54 of 55
psychology as a science
Science is controlled, reliable, uses empirical methods, creates falsifiable theories, and aims to establish cause and effect.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


face validity


‘On the face of it’ it appears to measure what it intended to

Card 3


construct validity


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


criterion validity


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


concurrent validity


Preview of the front of card 5
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