Health and Social Care : Unit 1

What is Growth?
Give and example.
An increase in a measurable quantity e.g. height and weight (physical change)
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What is development?
A complex change in skills and capabilities in terms of physical, social, emotional and intellectual skills.
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What is a norm?
A sequence with a followed pattern which aids professionals to determine an average
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List 3 Principles of Growth
It is continuous process.
The rate of growth is not smooth.
Different genders influence the rate of growth.
Infancy and Puberty are the greatest periods of growth.
No two individuals grow at the same rate.
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What is a centile chart?
A chart showing the progressing height and weight of a child.
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A chart showing the progressing height and weight of a child is called what?
A centile chart
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List 3 Principles of Development.
Head to toe (the order in which a child can control its muscles).
Major (gross) motor skills.
Minor (fine) motor skills.
Development occurs in the same sequence but at different rates.
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What does holistically mean?
When areas of development are dependent and influence each other.
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Why might development be delayed?
List 3 reasons.
Genetic Factors.
Lack of Bonding or Neglect.
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What is a milestone?
Name 1 example.
A set skill which has an average in terms of the age that the skill is reached/completed. E.g. At around 1 year old a child can stand alone.
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Discuss Major (Gross) motor skills.
Major (Gross) motor skills is the development of movement in large muscle groups like, arms and legs. Development in the movement of these muscles occurs first.
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Discuss Minor (Fine) motor skills.
Minor (Fine) motor skills is the development of the movement in small muscle groups like, fingers and toes. Development in the movement of these muscles occurs after Major (Gross) motor skills.
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Discuss the Gessell Maturation Theory
This theory focuses on the physical and mental development of children.
Gessell suggested that children will go through the same stages of development in the same sequence but each child will go through the stages at a different rate.
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List the 6 life stages
Infancy/Birth, Early Childhood, Adolescence, Early Adulthood, Middle Adulthood, Later Adulthood
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Discuss the first life stage.
Infancy/Birth (0-2 Years)

A child experiences rapid growth, they reach half of their adult height at 2. Infants can walk at 1 and run at around 2.
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Discuss the second life stage.
Early Childhood (3-8 Years)

A child experiences continuous growth at a steady pace, they develop strength and co- ordination.
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Discuss the third life stage.
Adolescence (9-18 Years)

Teens experience growth spurts during puberty as well as developing sexual characteristics.
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Discuss the fourth life stage.
Early Adulthood (19-45 Years)

At around 21, adults reach their peak physical fitness. Women experience the perimenopause in later early adulthood
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Discuss the fifth life stage.
Middle Adulthood (45-65 Years)

Ageing begins, Strength and stamina deteriorates. Women experience the menopause.
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Discuss the sixth life stage.
Later Adulthood (65+ Years)

Ageing process continues, gradual loss of mobility. Older adults can experience a loss of height.
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What is puberty?
Puberty is a development stage that prepares you for sexual reproduction, it happens across 7 years.
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What gland controls the release of hormones in both males and females?
The Pituitary Gland
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Discuss to male hormones.
Testes form testosterone simulating sperm production
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Discuss female hormones.
Oestrogen, progesterone formed by the ovaries.
Ovulation: Periods (Menstrual Cycle) signifies fertility.
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When are sexual characteristics developed?
During puberty.
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What are primary sexual characteristics?
Primary sexual characteristics: Occur first, they are born with and develop during adolescence.
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What are secondary sexual characteristics?
Secondary sexual characteristics: Occur after primary characteristics, they are not born with but develop during puberty.
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What are sexual characteristics driven by?
Both types of sexual characteristics are driven by hormones, it is different in boys and girls.
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What are a males primary sexual characteristics?
(name some)
Enlargement of penis and testes.
Spontaneous erections caused by blood flowing into chambers in the penis.
The testicles begin to produce spermatozoa (sperm), beginning of ***********.
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What are a females primary sexual characteristics?
(name some)
The uterus enlarges and the vagina lengthens.
The ovaries begin to release eggs.
The menstrual cycle commences.
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What are a males secondary sexual characteristics?
(name some)
Changes in larynx (Adam’s apple) causing the voice to deepen.

Hair grows in armpits and pubic area, facial hair.
Redistribution of muscle tissue and fat.
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What are a females secondary sexual characteristics?
(name some)
Breasts develop and the areola (the area around the ******) swells and darkens.
Hair grows in armpits and pubic area.
Redistribution of body fat which, causes the hips to widen.
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What is the perimenopause?
This process occurs before menopause. It occurs due to the ovaries gradually producing less oestrogen in the early 40s. it can last from a few months – 10 years. Some symptoms may be hot flushes, irregular or heavy periods, mood swings.
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What is middle aged spread?
Putting on weight by eating the same diet you did when you were younger (metabolism declines becoming slower) – Increased waist/waistline.
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How does a decline in production of collagen effect an individual?
(collagen makes the skin elasticated reducing wrinkles) Skin becomes less elasticated.
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What is the menopause?
Females are during their late teens and 20s. Between 45-55 fertility reduces and comes to an end by a process called menopause which, can take several years to complete.
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What are some physical effects of the menopause?
Menopause consists of the ending of the menstrual cycle. Large reduction of eggs in the ovaries. An increase in production of hormones called gonadotropins that try to stimulate/regulate eggs production. This can irritable hot flushes and night sweats. Re
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What are some emotional effects of the menopause?
Hormonal changes can lead to mood changes (anxiety/depression) especially with the reduction of oestrogen levels. It may make women emotional knowing they are no longer fertile which can be overwhelming.
Self-image and self-esteem may become low.
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How does a woman know she has completed the menopause?
To know you have completed the menopause: not having a period for over 12 months.
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What are some symptoms of the perimenopause/menopause?
Irregular or heavy periods
Mood swings
Trouble sleeping
Hot flushes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is development?


A complex change in skills and capabilities in terms of physical, social, emotional and intellectual skills.

Card 3


What is a norm?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


List 3 Principles of Growth


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a centile chart?


Preview of the front of card 5
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