History Anglo Saxon

Role of an Earl
Most important noble, controlled large areas of England and up held the law, collected tax and raised army
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Role of the king
Make important decisions and head of government, good military leader and manage nobles
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Role of thegns
Held land directly from the king and they provide military service when needed, less powerful than earls
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Role of ceorls
Free men who owned their land and had to serve in army if called on to do so
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Role of slaves
Not free men, have to work for thegns as servants
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Role of peasants
Rented land from thegns and had to work on their land three days a week
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Role of sheriff
Looked after shire
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Role of the Witan
advise the king
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What Punishment that someone receives a murder?
Blood feud, if there was a murderer there could be retaliation without the courts getting involved
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What was a WERG I LD?
Value of someone’s life in cash
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Why would u revive the capital punishment
For treason
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What was mutilation?
Crimes against the church
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Who were the tithing service ?
Group of local men and respected to catch people and bring them to the court and the failure to do so led to a fine
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What were the two types of court?
Shire and hundred
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How were trials carried out ?
Jury, who knew both parties, were to come to a decision, failure to do so meant the prisoners would be put under a trial of order in church
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What did the church have an influence over ?
People as they went to church, when there were holy days, heirachy (caste system), land (owned 25% of it)
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Who were the house of Godwin ?
A family who owned most of the land in England, Harold had strongest claim to the throne
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Who did Harold godwinsons sister (edith) marry ? Why important?
The king, made godwinsons even more powerful as they had blood ties to king
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Why did Harold gospdwinson have a strong claim to the throne ?
He had ties in Mercia as he married Morcar, the earl of mercias, sister; had a lot of power over Witan; he had support from the church and nobles as he put down lots of rebellions
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Why did Harold visit Normandy ?
To promise to help William claim the throne (promise later broken)
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Why was Tostig exiled?
Because he was a tyrant so Edwin and morcar attacked him
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What did Tostig do while he was exiled?
He planned an attack on the east cost of England with hadrada
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When did Edward then confessor die ?
5 jan 1066
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What was William of Normandy’s claim to the throne ?
Edward supposedly promised him the throne, Harold promised to help him and he was a strong leader
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What was Harold hadradas claim to the throne ?
Supposed agreement in 1042, wanted more land + England was a rich country, encouraged by Tostig
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What was Edgar athelings claim to the throne?
Blood claim, had support of witan and earls
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When was Harold godwinsons crowned king ?
6 jan 1066
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What were the others responses when they heard Harold godwinsons had been crowned?
William= started to plan an attack, Tostig=attack east and south east coasts
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How did Harold godwinson deal with these threats?
He gathered an army and marched north but let them leave to help with harvests which is when the attacks happened.
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When was the battle of gate fulford? Against?
20 sep 1066, hadrada + Tostig vs. Edwin and morcar
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What happened during the battle?
Hadradas troops marched north + destroyed Edwin and morcars army as they outnumbered them, English broke and retreated into swampy land meaning they were killed
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What was the aftermath of this battle ?
Harold travelled north and there were lots of English men lost.
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When was the battle of Stamford bridge ? Against?
22 September 1066, hadrada + Tostig vs. Harold godwinson
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What happened during this battle ?
Godwinson launched a surprise attack as hadrada thought they were exchanging hostages, hadrada and Tostig were both killed
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Why did Harold godwinson win the battle of Stamford bridge ?
Because the Viking army had no armour, Viking army were tired, was a surprise attack
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What was the aftermath of this battle ?
Viking’s were crushed, English army grew in power, success of battle made Harold over confident setting him up for failure in the next battle
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Explain the events of the battle of Hastings
England outnumbered but formed strong shield wall which Norman’s could not break, Norman’s used a fake flee disrupting shield wall meaning English were killed (including godwinson) and retreated
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Why did William win the battle fo Hastings ?
Fresh forces, Harold’s army was untrained, aware of Harold’s approach (harold didn’t know this), William was a strong leader, good tactics, luck on their side + had horseback soldiers
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Why did Harold lose?
Tired unprepared army, luck wasn’t on their side, old tactics compared to Williams new ones
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Why did the earls submit to William?
Because William was just destroying land, he built numerous castles and he allowed morcar and edwin to keep this land if they submitted
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How did William reward his followers ?
They received land and those hawk payed homage received land to, fitozobern was given land from godwinson
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When was William crowned king?
Christmas Day 1066
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Why did William create marched earldoms?
To decrease the theart level at the welsh borders
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Why did William build castles?
To control and area, repel invaders on coasts and boarders and show his power
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How many castles were built by 1100?
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Why were castles important when faced with a rebellion?
They could be used as a base/ intimidation or power
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What was the motte on a castle?
It was what was used for protection and a height advantage where soldiers could retreat to or launch an attack from
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What was the Bailey on a castle..
Where most of the soldiers lived,
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Why was there drawbridge and moat ?
So they could defend against an attack
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Why did Edwin and morcar rebel?
Edwin= William didn’t let him marry his sister, morcar= stripped of earldom
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When was this rebellion?
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Key points of rebellion
Both left Williams court and marched north to gain support, William marched north building castles as he went and harroed the north making Edwin and morcar surrender
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Key point of Edgar athelings rebellion
He fled the court and went north to gain support, left Scotland to lead English rebel forces who attacked Norman forces, William marched north, destroyed north and Edgar fled
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Why did Edgar come back after retreating?
Because swein of Denmark attacked Kent which meant Edgar came back and took over York
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What was Williams response to Edgar taking over York?
He destroyed the whole of York leaving both rebels crushed
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What was hereward the wakes main motive to rebel?
So he could attack Peterborough Abby and take treasure back to ely
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Who was going to support hereward?
The Danes (but William bribed them home) and morcar but he was captured and brutally punished along with the rebels
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What happened to hereward the wake ?
He avoided capture and was never a problem again
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Why did William Harrow the north ?
Because he was angry about the rebellions
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When did William Harrow the north ?
In 1069-70
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What was the harrowing of the north ?
When William burnt houses, crops and people so the rest of the population feared him, he also put salt in the ground meaning it was inhabitable for 20 years after as no crops would grow
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What was the outcome of the harrowing of the north?
People starved and turned to cannibalism and no one could live there even 20 years after
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How many thegns lost their land from 1066-1087?
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How much percentage of land did 10 barons hold?
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Who owned the most land?
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How did William maintain royal power?
By mutilating rebels, killing people and villages, ********* people of land and titles, building castles and putting his own supporters in key positions
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What were broken up by William in order to maintain power?
Key English earldoms such as wessex, Northumbria and mercia
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what were the three main ways the saxons lost their land?
forfeit= taken away if the king wasnt happy with them, new earldoms, land grabs= illegal stealing of land
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why was the new land ownerships good for tenants in cheif?
because they could dismiss thegns who acted against them and chose heirs
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why was the new land ownerships bad for thegns?
their land could be more easily taken away
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why was the new land ownerships bad for peasants?
the tenant in cheif wanted more revenue for land and ceorles became less common
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what earls revolted?
ralph de gael (norman), roger de breteuil (norman), waltheof (saxon)
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why did the earls revolt?
because they all thought they had been given less land than they deserved so they were going to divide the country between themselves
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when did ralph and roger inform waltheof about the plans?
at ralphs wedding
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what did waltheof do ?
he snaked on them by telling archbishop lanfranc
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what was lanfrancs response?
he threatened to excommunicate them
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what eventually stopped ralph and roger ?
the anglo saxons by stopping ralph and rogers troops meeting
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why was it a good time for the rebellion ?
because william wasnt actually in england so it was good timing
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what was the outcome of the rebellion ?
waltheof was exceuted, roger got life inprisonment
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why did the rebellion fail?
no support from anglo-saxons, danes arrived too late+ didnt want to fight william, waltheof snaked em init
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why was this revolt so significant?
turning point=show anglo-saxon support for william, last english earl killed so he now had complete control over the country
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what was the feudal system?
social system in england after norman conquest
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why was the feudal system set up ?
to maintain control and fight battles against normandy by being able to get troops without paying for them
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what was the order of the feudal system ?
william 1st, tenants in cheif, under tennants, peasants
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what did william give the tennants in cheif ?
land, tax concessions, peace, law protection in return for loyalty and service
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what did the tennants in cheif grant the undertennants?
land and privalleges
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what did the under tennants give peasants?
land to be worked
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what did the peasants give the under tennants?
land service (farmed their land), rent
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what did the under tennants give the tennants in cheif ?
military service in return for land and paid tax
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what did the tennants in cheif give william the 1st ?
knight service, tax and justice
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why were tennants in cheif so important?
they had to fight, ran courts, advised the king when requested, church leaders, organise distribution of land
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why were the knights so important?
guards lords property, used in courts, used castles to launch attacks from, provide milatary service, got rid of opposistion
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how did the 'relief system' encourage loyalty tot the king?
that the more loyal you were to the king the less relief youd have to pay when passing the land onto an heir
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who decided the amount of relief ?
the king
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why did the relief system sometime cause discontent?
the king made rewarding followers only good for him as he was the only one who wasa benefitting financially
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what was the ceremony on homage ?
when a baron had to kneal between the king and make a promise of faith to the king for the rest of his life over the bible
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what was labour service ?
working hard on the lords land in return for the use of the land in the first place
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what was forfeiture?
when a land user didnt provide the service asked of them and so they could surrender the land or pay a fine ( it was designed to protect the lords interest)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Role of the king


Make important decisions and head of government, good military leader and manage nobles

Card 3


Role of thegns


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Role of ceorls


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Role of slaves


Preview of the front of card 5
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