Humanistic approaches to personality

What is motivation?
internal state, dynamic rather than static in nature that propels action, directs behaviour and is orientated towards satisfying both instinctual and cultural need and goals (Chamorrow-Premuzi, 2011;261
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What is it to be motivated?
To be moved to do something
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How do we infer motivation?
From the behaviours we observe
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How is personality defined?
As behaviours, thoughts and feelings
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what are the two ways of being motivated?
Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation
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What is intrinsic motivation?
from within, personal enjoyment e.g. education
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What is extrinsic motivation?
Goal orientated, external and seeks reward/ avoid punishment
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What are the historical roots of humanistic perspective?
we are all born good, and strive to reach our full potential
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What is humanistic historically rooted in?
existential philosophy - concerned with how we find meaning for our existence, what motivates us to keep on living
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What are the key elements of humanistic theory?
Uniqueness, free will, human responsibility for our choices
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Characteristics of humanistic approaches?
Personal growth, here and now, motivated to grow in positive way
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What is the therapist's aim?
to understand/ give insight not to provide solution
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What is phenomenology?
understanding the individuals experiences and consciousness
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What has the past helped?
To shape the person that we are/ able to be
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What was Carl Rogers' theory?
the theory of self
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what were the two aspects of Rogers theory?
bio; basic needs and psych; development of our potential
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What are we motivated by (Rogers)?
an innate striving for growth and self-acculisation
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What is the end point (Rogers)?
A fully functioning person
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what 3 characteristics make up the fully functioning?
self-determination and choice, positive self-concept and high self-esteem
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More of what, means we are less likely to be psych healthy?
COW; 'I'll do whatever it takes to be valued'
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What is self-concept?
Who you think you are outrises how others see you
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What is self-esteem?
feelings about knowledge - a realistic self-awareness and belief that we are basically ok
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in actualising tendency in development there is no...
stages, as infants engage in an organismic valuing process
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What is the emphasis on (ATD)?
The right environment for optimal development
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What has a high functioning parent likely to have?
self-actualised children, passed on by environment child is bought up on
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What was Carl Rogers therapy famous for?
being person centred
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what did this focus on?
the persons feelings
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what is a healthy person said to be?
in touch with their feelings
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what kind of approach is this?
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what kind of communication is it?
free and open all about self
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why does the client engage in this?
they want to know their true self - seek self-congruence i.e. consistency between ideal and real self
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Who measured self concept in 1953?
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with 100 adjectives/ short statement e.g. I am ambitious
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How many categories were there?
9 i.e. 1 = descriptions most like, 9 = descriptions least like
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What does it measure?
current self-concept
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Evaluation of Rogers?
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what did Maslow study?
famous figures
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what were his characteristics of high satisfaction?
creative, think differently, peak experience, higher self-acceptance
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How do those with high satisfaction think?
differently, they have a non-judgemental form of thought
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What is a peak experience?
Activity has clear objectives/ goals - individual feels in control
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what motivates us?
Growth - developing individual potential e.g. thirst for knowledge
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The thirst for knowledge is...
unique to the individual - needs are about developing potential
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What is deficiency
Basic physiological needs we're motivated to fulfil (survival)
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What did Maslow develop
A hierarchy of needs
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What are his 3 core principles?
1. children: innate drive to develop 2. socialisation: listen to 'inner voice' and natural desire to row or follow parental dictates (lack of choice) 3. boundaries/ responsibilities
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Why was there a lack of detailed information of core principles?
there was no prior research by Maslow
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Who came up with self-determination theory (SDT) in 1985?
Deci & Ryan
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What is SDT?
3 innate psychological needs from the basis of self-motivation
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What are the 3?
1. Autonomy, 2. competence 3. relatedness
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what happens when we achieve our needs?
optimal function, well-being and growth
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What do Maslow's and SDT have in common?
Theories focus on identifying individual needs
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What kind of theories are these referred to as?
content theories of motivation - the focus is on what are needs are and how they relate to motivation to fulfil
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What does SDT consider?
Extrinsic motivation and how psych needs are supported or thwarted within a social context
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Who critiques motivational theories 2011?
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What does Forbes argue?
the utility of motivation theories is limited by 3 shortcomings
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1st shortcoming is...
Failure to operate basic reflexes and bio based motivations from high-order social and cognitive motivations
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2nd is...
Tendency for theory to be embedded within a dominant theoretical paradigm or narrow area of interest
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3rd is...
Tendency to deal with motivations as discrete forces, without examining the similarities and linkages between them
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What did critiques of motivational theories lead to?
The development of a unified model of human motivation
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What is motivational interviewing?
building internal motivation for change
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who originally developed it?
Clinical psychologists Miller and Rollnick (1991)
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Who did they work with?
People with alcohol-related problems
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What is the focus on?
Facilitating client's intrinsic motivations to elicit change by exploring and resolving ambivalence
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What type of communication is it?
collaborative and goal-orientated style - with particular attention on the language of change
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Where is it used?
in healthcare and forensic settings
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How many principles do Miller and Rollnick outline?
5 core principles
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Empathy through listening to convey understanding
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Develop discrepancy between goals/ values and current behaviour
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Avoid argument and confrontation
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Adjust to client resistance
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Support for self-efficacy and optimism by building confidence that change is possible
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what skills does the practitioner have to have?
Empathy and be able to use OARS; open-ended q's, affirmations, reflective listening and summaries
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A clients readiness to change reduces what?
risky behaviour
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and increases what?
engagement in treatment for substance misuse
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How has MI shown to reduce offending behaviour?
it improves retention in treatment, enhance motivations to change - although variations evident across studies (McMrran, 2009)
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What is mindfulness?
awareness, paying attention, consciousness, present moment, non-judgemental experience moment by moment
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mindfulness training increases
cooperative decision making in economic exchanges, underpinned by humanistic perspective
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is it to be motivated?


To be moved to do something

Card 3


How do we infer motivation?


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Card 4


How is personality defined?


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Card 5


what are the two ways of being motivated?


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