ICT Info 3

  • Created by: Zystra
  • Created on: 04-12-17 14:03
Sound Card
Converts digital sound to analogue so it can be heard
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Digital Divide
As ICT is used more people who don't have access are at an increasing disadvantage
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Digital Rights Management (DRM)
Set of technologies that allow copyright owners to get paid for use of their property (using encryption)
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Internet Service Provider - Provides internet for individuals and firms.
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Division of Labour
Allows workers to specialise and develop expertise
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Span of Control
Too wide a control - lack of effiency... Too narrow a control wastes staff
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Problems of big chains of command?
Take longer time and messages can be distorted.
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Pyramid/Hierarchical structure
Everyone has a small span of control and is very centralised.
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Advantages of hierarchical structure
Individuals responsibility are defined. Specialist managers are encouraged. Employees are loyal to their department.
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Problem with hierarchical structure
Decisions take time to be made and implement. Communication can be poor. Senior staff remote to lower levels.
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Flat structure
Fewer layers and span of control are wider. Employees have more responsibility
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Advantages of the flat structure
More communication between management and workers. Less bureaucracy -decision making is easier. Lower costs with fewer managers.
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Problems with flat structure
As departments are specialised, there may be poor communication between them. Managers can be responsible for several departments that they aren't familiar with. Top management have to wide a control (weak structure). Less prospects of promotion.
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How has ICT has affected structures?
ICT give information on staff performance, making it easy for managers. Less data entry is needed. Middle manages have eroded because computers can do their jobs instead through systems.
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What decides firms information needs?
Size of firm, Nature of firm (healthcare, banks etc) Management style (Autocratic vs Democratic)
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Activities within a system
Order management system - allow businesses to manage distribution of goods in anautomated way. Allows them to track orders and control promotions. Provides reports on orders. Customer support - Can get extra sales so there shoiuld be focus.
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Strategic Level
Highest level - consists of senior management and are decisions in the long term. Needs an overview of operation. Not much detail, big decision.
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Tactical level
Middle management decisions who have operational managers reporting to them. Performance of organisation for monitoring purposes. Generally use graphs from MIS. Needs good forecasting etc.
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Operational level
Lowest level done by workforce, usually done with data processing. Operational mamnagers need information on stock levels, working hours etc. Need lists and charts, usually done with computers. High detail, low value.
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an intranet that can be partially accessed by authorized outside users, enabling businesses to exchange information over the Internet in a secure way.
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Electronic data interchange - Electronic data interchange (EDI) is the concept of businesses communicating electronically certain information that was traditionally communicated on paper such as invoices
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Legacy system
Existing system of the organisation
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Payroll system
Consists of records and calculations to work out payments and deductions for every employee of the business including tax etc. Needs to be known for Inland Revenue.
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How can payroll be done?
Outsourced(Done by a specialist company), Inhouse (using specialist software), inhouse (hiring somone)
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Human resources
Deals with employees, absences and employee history - helps produce statistics
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Why don't people replace legacy systems
Expensive,disruptive to business, new system might not improve it.
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Supply chain managment software
Streamlines all activities in its supply chain and efficienly uses transport labour to keep costs to a minimum.
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Transaction-processing system
Deals with routine day-to-day transactions of an organisation (repetitive tasks such as sales, withdrawals from ATMs). Involve large quantities of data capture and updates quickly
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How a document moves in an organisation
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Document approval workflow
A dcument passed between staff to be reviewed and approved (Such as in insurance)
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Document managment system
Helps manage workflow (track, manage and store documents ) usually done by scanning.
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Advantages of Document management system (3 reasons)
Can cross reference documents, Saves paper, saves time looking for documents.
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Disadvantages of Document Management system (3 reasons)
Need to upgrade storage a lot, needs to be secure, can be complex to manage
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Collaborative working system
People can work on the same document or file at the same time
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Managment information system (MIS)
Uses operational-level data to provide management level information - combining internal and external sources into an easy to read format like tables and graphs. Helps manager make decisions.
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Executive Information System (EIS)
Provides info for senior managers. Extremely user friendly and can 'drill down' on hot spots to help make decisions.
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Enterprise Resource Planning system (ERP)
Integrated suite of software that supports and automates processes in big businesses. Deals w/inventory,shipping etc. Updates in real time. Improves efficiency of business as you can easily find loss making areas etc.
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Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
allows a business to collect, update and maintain all of its customer data in one centralised location. This means the business acts as one- every past contact detail is held so service is personalised.
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Decision support system (DSS)
Converts raw data into information which is used to make high quality decisions and solve problems. Outputs easy to understand info and can find negativ trends and allocate resources. Can drill down or use models to make decisions like giving a loan
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E-commerce system advantages (3 reasons)
Cut costs on staff, no double booking, accessed from anywhere
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E-commerce disadvantages (2 reasons)
Can't physically inspect items, Higher costs due to postage
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Formal record of all financial transactions
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List the types of systems (12)
Payroll, Supply chain management, transaction processing, legacy system, Document managment, Collab working, MIS, EIS, enterprise resource planning, Customer relationship managment(CRM), Decision support system (DSS), Ecommerce
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Back office system
System that runs a company's business administration processes behind the scenes (no customer contact)
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Formal organisation system
Planned in advance, strictly adhered to. Management structure clearly defined and specific ICT technicians etc. Established project teams..
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Methods of Formal Information Flow (5)
Formal meetings, Internal memos, noticeboards, presentations, intranet
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Advantages of formal information flow
Quick communication, Use as reference (as it is recorded by org), Less prone to errors
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What is formal information flow
Official ways of doing something such as an application, or a meeting.
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What is informal information flow
It isn't structured and naturally arises from within the organisation
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How can informal information flow occour (4)
Grapevine, phone calls, stories in press, conversations
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Problem with informal information flow
Less accurate and reliable
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How do you improve information flow (3 reasons)
Less bureucracy (to increase accuracy and speed), flatter structure, less employees.
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How does nature of data have affect on data flow
More important info will be done formally in meetings or letters
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How can email cause a data flow problem
People could forward too many emails or send emails to big groups which causes information overload.
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What is a CIO
A chief information officer is a member of the executive board and acts as a ridge between business goals of org and implementation of goals using ICT
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What do CIOs do
Manage IT resources, mapping out ICT strategy and policy such as procurement and future proofing as well as standards. Details how ICT is utilised.
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Internal Factors which influence ICT strategy (6)
Business goals, Finance, Legacy systems, Geography of clients, Business fulfilment, structure of org.
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External Factors which influence ICT strategy (2)
Compliance, Legal issues
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How do Business Goals affect strategy
If Org wants to cut costs the strat might include replacing systems into more efficient ones. Supermarket might increase customers using POS tills. ICT strat might be to decrease volume of data input by employees etc.
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How does finance affect ICT strategy
Small charities wont be able to afford big systems. Big businesses may have to phase the purchases over several years
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How do legacy systems affect ict strategy
ICT system should read existing data files and software should be compatable with old software. Changing things makes users anxious and need training so it needs to work easily with old system
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How does geography of clients affect ICT strategy
Small businesses wont have many sales in local areas however with ICT they can reach anyone with ecommerce.
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How does business fulfilment affect ICT strategy
Business fulfilment is achieving businesses goals. Touchscreen systems can be used to quicken appointments or systems built to improve efficency
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How does structure of org affect ICT strategy
Departments and how information is used need to be studied carefully. They might have regional managers which need dif info. Formal hierarchal structures req a method for speed. Design must account info flow such as email system
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How does compliance affect ICT strategy
Officers of company need to comply w law. Laws might need companies to make new systems. They may need a CIO. Licesnsing issues, FOI act + computer misuse. Company need to train and improve security.
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Legal issues
Auditors need proof businesses protect against ict misuse. They need to meet req of a auditor which means they need to store important info. Management need to check employees meet policies with audit trails but it can be expensive and slow processes
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Why do orgs need to manage information assets over time (3 reasons)
Businesses grow, bigger volume of data, legal reasons
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How can orgs manage older data (3 reasons)
Delete records, Archive Records, Expand storage space
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Storing records that aren't in day-to-day use offline in case it is needed in the future.
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Why shouldn't you delete old records (4 reasons)
Customer might need it, To produce reports, Auditing purposes, Legal purposes
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How can information be managed better
Using a filing system and folders. Automatically archive old records to have more data.
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Acquisation of hardware at the best price for the org - it can be purchased or leased to help achieve orgs objectives.
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Makes sure system has reasonable life and doesn't need to be replaced soon. Systems designed to cope with predicted growth. Networks need to cater to future traffic as improvements might effect productivity
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Reasons to upgrade hardware/software (8 reasons)
Improvement of technology, Required changes in software needs better specs, old pc made redundant and slow, new tasks possible, makes company look modern, new procedures, cost effective
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Reasons not to upgrade software/hardware (5 reasons)
Expensive, More resource requirement (RAM), incompatability with other PCs, need training (causes confusion), productivity slows
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Why would an org wait to buy new technology (2 reasons)
Cheaper to buy and bugs have been sorted out
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A predetermined way of doing something
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How standards effect strategy (3 reasons)
Portability helps speed up time needed to do something. Data sharing needed to improve effiency, Using standards in business leads to bulk buying - cheaper costs
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Continuing professional development - allows staff to acquire skills to progress and enhances career progression
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Why would a org train employees (4 reasons)
New hardware/software, new staff, new legislation, employees want better skills
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What should a training policy include (6 reasons)
Review skills gaps, review an individuals needs, encourage ICT learning, replace skills of employees who have left, help for new employees, consider training costs
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The 3 security questions on data
Who sees the data? Has the data been corrupted? Can I access data when I need it?
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How can security be breached of an org
Hackers, viruses, incompetence - failing to encrypt, easy passwords, bad firewalls + protection, and unhappy employees.
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Role of ICT security policy
Lays down procedures, guidlines and practices to keep data safe from theft misuse and unauthorised access.
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Aims of security policy (6 reasons)
Prevent misuse, detect misuse, investigate misuse (with audits), prevent unauthorised access, lay down staff responsibilities, lay down discipline procedures.
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How to improve awareness of a security policy (6 reasons)
Meetings, training to individuals, leaflets, intranet, posters, emails
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Examples of disciplinary measures (4 reasons)
Network usage monitored, access rights restricted, verbal/written warning, termination
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What laws relate to ICT (8)
Data protection, Computer misuse, Copyright designs and patents, Health and safety at work, RIPA, Electronic comerce, FoI act, copyright and rights in databases regulations
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Regulatory of Investigatory powers act (RIPA)
RIPA allows public bodies to use survelliance and intercept communications. It also allows businesses to investigate unauthorised use of systems and deter crimes under certain conditions
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Electronic Commerce Act
All commercial websites must provide certain minimum information about the supplier, its products and services. If it has online transactions it must provide info on ordering process.
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Freedom of Information act
Gives individuals right to request from any public body information on any subject - org has to release it unless theres a good reason not to. Businesses should maintain publicatoin schemes to release info reguarly.
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Copyright and rightse in databases act
Designed to protect the investment of money time and effort into making a database. Regulations prevents unauthorised extraction of whole or a part of a database.
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Impact of legislation on procedures.
May need to centralise software purchases to have licenses, may need to train on laws and managers need to ensure legislation is enforced
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Data protection act.
Provides individuals with rights that protect them against misuse of personal data about them. Data has to be secure, accurate and used for the purpose provided. They can ask to see data about them.
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Methods of enforcing data protection act
Appoint data protection officer who monitors practices, data destroyed after certain amount of time. Data subject should be allowed access. Data protected with firewall, password etc. operational procedures set up and disciplinary procedures
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Data subject
Person whos data is being held by the org.
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Computer misuse act enforcement
Train employees about the act. Establish procedures such as banning USB sticks. No installing software. Spot checks on PCs. Dividing jobs up to not allow access to all info.
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Copyright designs and patent act enforcement.
Use software to track how many pe using software at one point. Spot checks on employees. Laptops checked reguarly.Software purchasing centralised.
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When mroe copies are made than number of licenses purchased (Some people don't know it's illegal)
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Software is illegally copied, usually comes without user guides. Could carry a virus.
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Health and safety officer
Checks that laws are complied with, reviews health and safety issues and discusses safety matters reguarly with managers and unions.
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Enforcement of health and safety
Inspections on work inspections. Procedures to replace faulty equipment. 'Safety incentive schemes' to reward alert staff. Establish requirements for software installed.
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Freedom of information act enforcement.
Org needs a system to ensure requests are dealt with promptly. Publication scheme reguarly reviewed and updated.
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Factors that contribute to successful development (3 reasons)
Management Involvement, End user involvement, Effective ICT teamwork
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What is a successful Ict project?
Does what the org intended, on time and within project and enables business to perform better.
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How does management involvement lead to successful development (5)
They need to understand the problems solved, cost-benefit analysis, have input on design, knowledge of ICT, regular updates
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How does end user involvement lead to successful development? (3)
The users will feel ownership of the system and want it to succeed, the can suggest modifications, They feel valued and want it to work
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How does effective ICT team work lead to successful development? (4)
ICT projects cant be done alone, breaking into subtasks make it more managable. Milestones lead to feeling accomplished, Leader makes tough decisions and has good management
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What characteristics does a successful team have? (5)
Good leadership, balance of skills and good allocation, adequete planning, standards, good commnication with users and team
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Factors which contribute to unsuccessful development(5)
Inadequete analysis, Unrealistic project plan, Insufficient monitoring, Lack of standards, Loss of control.
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How does inadequete analysis lead to an unsuccessful development (3)
Important factors may be missed, Solution unworkable, not enough observation leads to incomplete picture of requirements.
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How can you avoid inadequete analysis?
Follow accepted methodology in a standard way so no steps are missed.
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Something that has to be produced by the project team for the user (and has been tested and meets requriements
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A stage in the project when the management must give approval for the project to go further
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How can unrealistic project plan lead to unsuccessful development? (3)
Unclear timescales which can't be monitored with deadlines. Bad scheduling/ delays. Bad planning (over budget or over time)
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Allocating resources and facilities so they are avaible when required.
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How does insufficient monitoring lead to an unsuccessful development (5)
Leader must make sure members are working at correct pace. Project sticks to specification. Money must be used right and stick to budget. Good team monitors project well and budget. Members get reviewed.
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How does lack of standards lead to an unsuccessful development (3)
Team members might be unclear on what tasks colleagues have completed. Testing might be done wrong. With same standards people work quicker and more efficiently
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What can lead to loss of control in a project (8)
Poor initial planning, wrong mix of skills, bad resource allocation, bad leadership, bad coordination, workplace inflexibility, lack of trust, poor communication between members, mngment and users, bad monitoring
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Stages of system development lifestyle in order (8)
Preliminary study, Feasability study, Analysis, Design, Construction, Testing, Installation, Review and Maintenance
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What is a preliminary study
Finds out whether a new system is needed
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What is a feasability study
Looks at existing system and alternatives to help management decide to approve system or not.
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Factors of Feasibility study (5)
TELOS - Technical, Economic, Legal, Operational, Schedule
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How do you analyse the current system
Interview staff, Send questionairres, Observations, Examining existing documents
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What is analysis of the problem and proposed solution
Finding out about the current system and investigating the requirements. Find out deliverables
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Why is it important for deliverables to be in place (4)
They agree the content, ensure work is done with standards, agree the requirements and agree the documents provided.
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What is design in the systems development cycle
Determines how the requirements specification is implemented and breaks problem down into smaller sub-problems. Makes timescales too
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What is the construction of the soltion
System is produced using programs, and documentation is done. Hardware installed and cabling done
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What testing is done in the systems development cycle
Extreme data is tested, errenous data is tested and mistakes are investigated and corrected.
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Types of testing (5)
Module (part of system) functional (black box) system testing(whether it meets requirement) user testing (users test software) operational testing (testing in normal enviroment)
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Advantages of beta testing (4)
Testers are independant and impartial. Tested in the real world and users may do something not intended. Users provide valuable feedback before release. More testers than devs.
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Why would someone want to beta test?
Rewarding to be in a important part of production - they might even pay
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How can systems be converted? (4)
Direct Changeover, Phased Conversion, Parallel running, Pilot testing
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Direct Changeover
Scrapping the old system and replacing it immedietly.
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1 advantage and disadvantage of Direct changeovers
Very risky as something could go wrong. It can be done over night though.
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Parallel running
Old system and new system run together - when the new system is running smoothly the old system is stopped.
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Advantages of parallel running (2)
Safe method of conversion as backups availible. Users can learn system at own pace.
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Disadvantages of parallel running (2)
Can be costy as you are running 2 systems at once. Can lead to confusion.
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Phased conversion
Changeover occurs in stages, usually appropriate for systems that are broken down into seperate sections.
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Pilot conversion
The system is implemented in one department or location.
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Advantages of pilot conversion (2)
Bugs can be cleared up and users reactions taken into account before whole system is implemented. Training can also be modified.
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Disadvantage of pilot conversion. (3)
ICT workers have to support several systems. Systems aren't compatible with eachother. Costly.
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What is review and maintenance in systems development lifecycle?
Once a system is operational, the system should be maintained. The project should be reviewed, possible by discussing with managers and users.
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How can you review the system when complete? (3)
Surveys, talking to managers and users, doing speed tests.
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Systematic formal methods (5)
Agreeing deliverables, Gaining approval to proceed, creating a project plan, setting milestones and achieving signoff.
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Linear Metholodgy - Development
Stages completed in a fixed order and the next stage cannot start until the previous has occured
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What is the linear metholodgy of development also called?
Waterfall model
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What is the 'motto' of ICT use
ICT should only be used for two reasons. To do things better, or to do better things.
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What is the criticism of the linear metholodgy
It's too rigid for a world as complex as ours.
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Iterative methodology (Development)
Repeating a task over and over until the solution is right. Developers will go back and redesign after user feedback
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Disadvantage of the iterative methodology
It is time consuming.
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How to investigate how a system works at present (4)
Interviews, questionanaires, observation, document analysis
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Why are diagrams used to model business processes
Quicker and easier to understand than text.
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What does BPMN stand for?
Business process modelling notation
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What does a BPMN do
Represents workflow in a business (complex processes)
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What does SSADM stand for
Structured systems analysis and design methodology
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What is SSADM
A standard methodolgy of using developing UK government IT projects.
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What is Prince2
Methodology aimed at the successful managment of a project to manage budget, time, risk and quality.
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What is an ER model
An entity relationship diagram shows the relationships between data in a different tables.
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Data flow diagram
Shows how data moves through a system.
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Techniques for testing (6)
Test harness, Volume testing, Scalability, Prototyping, Multiplatform testing, Simulated Enviroment
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Test harness
A colllection of software and test data configured to perform specific tests on modules - running it under different conditions and comparing output to the expected one
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Volume testing
Tests that systems can work with large volumes of data as over a long time files become large. Tests that it doesn't affect performance.
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Scalability testing
Tests that a system will perform even if theres an increased workload such as higher number of users
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A scaled down simple version of the software to show how the new system will work
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Multiplatform testing
Ensures that software can be used with different hardware and operating systems.
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Simulated Enviroments
Various inputs and outputs can be used to test software as realistcally as possible.
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Distributed systems
a Large ICT system used across multiple small organisations all of which which carry out similar functions
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Code walkthrough
Formal testing technique where code is worked through - checks all variables
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What type of testing is code walkthrough
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Blackbox testing
Based on what software should do rather than how it is done
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Functional testing
Type of blackbox testing that checks that features and operations of software adhere to specification and it handles erroneous actions correctly
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Automated testing
Employs software tools which execute tests without intervention
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What should large systems be able to manage?
Unusual events without loss of data or functionality.
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Compatability testing
Done to ensure that software is compatible with other parts of system
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User acceptence testing - done by the client to figure out whether to accept a product. They use real data. It focuses on functionality and usability.
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What must be monitored with network based systems (2)
Effect of new system on running of the network and the effect of the network strucutre on the running of the application.
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Why shouldn't direct conversion be done on large ICT system
Logistics hard and its extremely complex to install all at once
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System documentation
Produced for programmars who maintain the system. Includes structure, program code annotations and testing records.
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User documentation
Designed to help users operate the system - consisting of manuals to perform business tasks, tutorials etc. It is mostly produced online.
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What factors affect the cost of maintenance (5)
How well structured the programs are, how many users of the system, number of undiscovered errors, quality of documentation and skills of maintenance team.
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What could delay the maintenance team from fixing a system
Bad structure of code and bad documentation.
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What types of maintenance are there?
Adaptive, Corrective, Perfective
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Adaptive maintenance
Done when circumstances change such as modifications in hardware, or legislation such as taxation.
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Corrective maintenance
When an unexpected error occurs due to bugs etc. Takes time for investigation to find source of the error
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Perfective maintenance
Involves the addition of new and enhanced functions to the software, or deletions to the system. If the system is successful they might want an upgrade.
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Maintenance release
Include changes to original version of software.
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Software patch
A small program which overcomes a specific problem in software. Usually automatically done.
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What are the corporate consequences of system failures (2)
If transaction systems go down it leads to loss of trade and customers go to competittors. Customers lose confidence (Reputation loss)
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List threats to information systems (7)
Physical failure, Hardware failure, Software failure, Telecommunications failure, Computer crime and abuse, Invalid data, system design failure
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List types of physical failure
Natural disaster like fires, floods. Terrorist attacks, Viruses, thiefs, hackers.
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List types of hardware failure
Processor failure, disk head crash, power cut
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Software failure
Errors such as bugs which could lead to system breakdown. Hard to find.
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Types of software failure. (2)
If its unsuitable for the task or volume of data is too large for system to deal with
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Telecommunication failure
As networks have grown theres a bigger chance of faulty cables etc.
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List types of computer crime (threats)
Hacking, viruses, theft, non encryption in public hotspots.
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Invalid data (threats)
User entry can be wrong or corrupt data which can be problematic if not noticed
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System design failures
Poor system design which doesn't build in appropriate measures to deal with all situations.
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What does a backup & recovery strategy include? (8)
When to backup, how often, which type, whose responsibility, what media to backup, where backup is kept, log of backups, testing recovery of backup
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What does RTO stand for
Recovery time objective
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What is RTO
The recovery time objective is the ideal period of time after an outage which the systems and data must be restored.
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Removes old, no longer used data and stores it on removable media (stored online). Can be brought back when required.
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When is the best time to backup?
Overnight when noone is working.
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Online backup advantage
Unlike magnetic tape, you won't lose as much operational time while recovering as you dont need to restore it in order.
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Disk mirroring
Storing identical data on two different disks. If the main disk fails there is identical data on the second. Held in another building incase of disaster.
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What does RAID stand for
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.
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What is RAID
A fault tolerant system which uses 2 or more disks to store data. If one disk is damaged they can use other ones.
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How are risks calculated
Likelihood of an event and the seriousness if it occurs
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Why is tape backup not good enough for large scale systems
Tapes are harder to encrpyt and expensive.
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Levels of recovery (4)
Partial or full loss of data, loss of data and software, loss of data software and operating system, loss of everything including hardware.
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What features does a fault tolerant computer have
Extra hardware such as memory chips, processors and disk storage in parallel. Software detects errors.
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How can you avoid disasters? (5)
Stop fires- CO2 extinguishers. Flooding by putting computers on second floor. Install a uninterrupitable power supply (UPS). Have strict rules and good security.
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What does the contigency plan depend on (6)
Size of organisation and ICT System. Method of processing, length of time for alt system to be set up. Financial losses. Cost of backup. Likelihood of disaster.
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Contents of a contigency plan (5)
Alternative computer hardware, backup procedures, recovery procedures, staff responsibilities, Alternative working location.
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What is an alternative working location
If a total loss occurs, the employees need somewhere to carry on their work.
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Options for disaster recovery (3)
In house provision, Subscription service, Reciprocal arrangements.
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In house provision
Organisation duplicates hardware and software on different site. Allows full continuity
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Hot site
A building with electricity and the same software and hardware as the org. Disks are mirrored, however it can be expensive with a subscription.
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Cold site.
Building with electricity but no installed equipment. When disaster occurs org needs to set up equipment and restore backups which takes time.
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Reciprocal arrangments
Arrangment between two orgs that they will support eachother in a disruption. They have similar processing requirements. It's cheap but you need to make sure they have the ability to hold new capacity.
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What should be considered when deciding to train
The level and pace of the training is right for the user and task.
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Types of training (3)
Skills-based training, task-based training, skills-refreshing training.
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Why is skill based training useful
Can lead to qualifications that are highly regarded and could be valuable as staff knowledge will transfer.
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Why is skills refreshing done
If they get a promotion they might need training in new ICT skills needed in the role.
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Training methods (7)
On the job training, In house courses, External courses, E learning, On screen help, Paper based, Interactive video
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Advantages of face to face training
Allows students to interact with eachother and share ideas and information
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Disadvantage of face to face training (2)
Training is usually planned a lot in advance so it lacks flexibility. If it isn't practiced immedietly it could be forgotten.
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Advantage of in house traininers
The trainers have an understanding of th organisation and can tailor the training to meet employees needs
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Disadvantage of in house trainers.
The cost.
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Advantage of online tutorials for training
Trainees can study what they want at their own pace for cheap.
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Advantage of On screen help for training.
Cheap and user friendly.
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Support for application software (7)
On site help, Call out support, Help desks, email support, user manuals, on screen help, online support
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Why would on site support be used?
If a new software is used employees might need help
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Call out support disadvantage and advantage
Expensive but quick
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Telephone help desk advantages
Cheaper and they are tracked in performance so will be good..
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Telephone desk disadvantages (2)
They are usually outsourced and different accents could confuse users. Also complex problems can't be answered on the spot
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Email support
If a problem isn't time critical this is used. Avoids wasted time on telephone.
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User guides
Aimed at first time users and managers who need to be able to interpret reports.
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On screen help
Wizards can be used to make complex procedures easy to use. This is very robust.
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Online support
Information is kept up to date, usually on forums specific to the software.
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How does support help a business?
Provision of support reassures customer when they buy it,, making them more likely to buy it. Help desk retains customers.
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Frequently asked questions - user can search through questions that have been asked and will most likely find their problems solution.
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Technical documentation
Installation instructions, memory requirements and devices etc. Has explanation of error messages.
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Factors to consider when selecting support.
Skill level, similarity from old system, how critical system is, number of employees, pattern of work.
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How does pattern of work affect support
They wont be able to use callout support if its nighttime.
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What do experienced and inexperienced users need in terms of support
Experienced need complex manuals and online support as they're quicker whilst inexperienced might need one to one.
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What should be considered when selecting support options (5)
Skill level of employees,
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