Issues and Debates

  • Created by: Olivia
  • Created on: 30-03-19 11:06
Gender Bias-Universality + Bias
Undermines psychologys claims that conclusions drawn can be applied to everyone,anywhere regardless time+culture. 2 forms-gender+cultural bias
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Gender Bias-Alpha Bias
exggerates or overestimates diffs between the sexes-more likely devalue females in relation to their male counterparts. Sociobiological theory-Wilson-male impregnate as many women-pass on genes+females who engage in same behaviour regarded as
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What are they regarded as?
going against their nature
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Gender Bias- Beta Bias
ignores,minimises or understimates diff between men+women-often occurs when female P not included in part of the process+then assumed findings apply equally to both sexes-example-fight or flight response -early research based male animals-assume univ
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Gender Bias- Androcentrism
Consequence of Beta set standard of noemalacy-our understanding of norm behaviour from research that all male-leads famale behaviour misunderstood -'abnormal'
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Gender Bias- Evaluation-Implications of Gender Bias
Gender biased research may create misleading assumptions about female behaviour.Carol Tarvis'it becomes normal for women to feel abnormal' may have damaging cosequences which afects lives-eg statistics female2x liked diagnosed depression
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Gender Bias- evaluation- Sexism within the research process
male researchers more likely have their work published.+lab experiment-may further disadvantage women-female p placed in inequitable relationship with researcher who has power label them eg-unable complete complex tasks-instituional sexism
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Gender Bias-evaluation-Reflexivity
many modern researchers r beginning recognise the effect their own values+assumptions have on the nature of their work-eg Dambrin+Lambert include reflection on how their genetic-related experiences influence reading of events-may lead greater awarnes
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Cultural Bias-Universality+Bias
Critics argue mainstreatm psych has ignored culture as important info on human behaviour+assumed findings apply to rest of world.Ash conformity-orginally conducted with US P+had diff results when replicated other parts of world-cult diff seen as abno
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Cultural Bias-Ethnocentrism
Belief in superiority of 1s own cultural psych research this may be through behaviour which doesnt conform to the(usually western) model r deficient,underveloped-Strange situation-reflecting norms+values of American culture
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Culture Bias-Cultural Relativism
John Berry drawn distincition between 2 approaches in human behaviour. Emic-functions from within or inside certain cultures+identifies behaviour specific to that culture.ETIC-theories,models etc r universal when came about from emic research-1 cultu
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Culture Bias-evaluation-Individualism+Collectivism
individualist-western+collectivist-eg india+china.Takano+Osaka found 14/15 studies that compared to USA+Japan found no evidence of traditional distincition between indiviudalist+collect-suggest culture bias less of an issue than was before
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Culture Bias-evaluation-Culture Relativism Vs Universality
may be right on diff aspects of psychology.-Ainsworth-imitation +interactonal synchrony are universal. A full understanding requires the study of both universal+variation among individuals+groups
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Culture Bias- evaluation-Unfamilarity with research tradition
demand characteristics may be exaggerated when working with members of local populatio+this may have effect on validity of research-cus when conducting researh western the Ps familarity with aims of study is assumed but may not extend other cultures
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Free Will+ Determinism-Free Wil
As humans self determing+free choose our own thoughts+actions-doesnt deny biological+enivornmental forces that some influence on behaviour but implies we r able reject them-view advocated by Humanisitc approach
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Free Will+Determinism-Harder determinism
Suggest all human behaviour has cause+should be possible identify+describe these causes. uncover causal laws+govern thought+action+assume everything think+do dictated by internal or external forces we cant control
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Free Will+Determinism-softer determinism-William James Philospher
suggests people have conscious mental control over the way they behave-freedom make rational conscious choices in everyday situations
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Free Will+Determinism-Biological Determinism
Lots of behaviours are thought to have genetic basis-mental disorders+research has demonstrated effect of hormone-role tostesorone in aggressive behaviour.
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Free will+Determinism-Enivornmental Determinism
BF skinner described free will as illusion+argued all behaviour result of conditioning-shaped by enviornmental events+agents of sociolisation -eg parents, teachers
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Free Will+Determinism-Psychic Determinism
Freud argued like Skinner but placed more emphasis on influence of biological drives+instincs.Determinism-determined +directed by unconscious conflicts,repressed in childhood.-no such thing as accident.
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Free Will+Determinism-Scientific emphasis on causal explanations
basic principle sciene-every event has cause+causes can explained using general laws-allow scientist control+predict events-in psych-lab exp enables stimulate conditions+remove extranous varibales-control+predict human behaviour
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Free will+Determinism- evaluation- Determinism- the case for
Determinism is consistent with aims of science. Value of such research-prediction+control human behaviour has led devlopments of treatments that have benefitted many-eg psychotherapeutic drug treatment in managing schizophrenia-
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sufferers experience loss control over behaviour+thoughts casts doubt on free will-no one chooses have schizophrenia-in terms mental illness then behaviour would appear be determined
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Free Will+Determinism- evaluation-Case against determinism
Hard determinism. In a law of court offenders r held accountable for their actions+also determinism is unfalsiable-based on idea causes behaviour will always exist even if not found-impossible prove wron-suggests not as scientific as appears
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Free will+determinism- evaluation - Case For free will
everyday experiences give impression we are constantly exercising free will through choices we make any day-gives face validity to concept-makes sense.+research suggests people who have internal LOC tend be more mentally healthy-influence own behavio
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Free Will+Determinism- evaluation - case against free will
Study by libet-found activity related whether press a button with left or right hand occurs in brain 10secs before P report being consciously aware of making decision-shows even basic free will decided+determined by brain before we aware of them
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The Nature-Nurture debate - Nature - Rene was Natavist
Rene Descartes argued human characteristics+some aspects knowledge are result heredity. Empiricists-John Locke argued mind is blank slate at birth upon which learning experiences writes-result enivornment.
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The Nature-Nurture debate- Nature- Heritability coefficent
used assess heredity.figure raging from 0 to 1.0 which indicates extent charcateritsitc has genetic basis.-1 meaning genetically determined. General figure for herability in IQ is 0.5-suggests genetics+environment important factors in intelligence
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The Nature-Nurture Debate - NURTURE
Richard Lerner identified 3 levels of enivronment. may be definied as quite narrow pre natal terms-eg mothers physical+psychological state during pregnancy or through post natal experiences as the social conditions the child grows up
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And what else
the cultural+historical context they are part of
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The Nature-Nurture Debate-Relative importance of heredity+environment
nature nurture q is impossible answer-cus as Lerner suggest enviornment influence begin as soon as born+debate is closely intertwined that makes little sense seperate-eg twin studies hard tell whether high concordance rate-genetics or shared upbring
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The Nature Nurture Debate- Interactionist approach
Attachment patterns between infant+its parents are often two wa-childs innate temperament will influence way parent responds+their respond will affect childs behaviour-Nature creates nurture-heredity+environment interact
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The Nature Nurture Debate-Diathesis stress model
suggests psychopathology is caused by genetic vulnerability(diathesis) which only expressed when coupled with biological or enivornment trigger(stressor).Pikka found group of adoptees most likely develop schizophrenia had biological relatives with it
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and had relationships with adoptive families that were defined as dysfunctional (the trigger)
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The Nature-Nurture Debate-Epigenetics
Refers to change in genetic activity without changing genetic code caused by interaction with the environment.aspects in our lifestyle+events we encounter-from smoking. leave epigenetic marks on our DNA -these tell our bodies which genes to ignore
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what else do they do
and use +may influence genetic codes for our children+as well as their children.Epigenetics therefore introduces the life of experience of previous generations into the debate
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Epigenetics study- Dias+Ressler
Gave male lab mice eletric shocks when exposed to certain smell used in perfume.the mice showed fear reaction as soon as scent presented+rats children also feared the smell-even tho not exposed to it before or given shocks+so did their grandchildren
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The Nature Nurture Debate-evaluation-Implications of nativism+empircism
Natavist suggest 'anatomy is destiny'-our inherited genetic make up determines our characteristics+behaviour+enviornment little input.contrast-empiricsts suggest behaviour can changed by altering environmental conditions-extreme-
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What may it lead to
advocate a model of society that controls+manipulates its citizens using these techniques
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The Nature Nurture Debate-evaluation-shared+ unshared environments-supports heredity+environment cant be meaingfully seperated
Dunn+Plomin suggest indiviudal diffs mean siblings may experience life events diff-eg age would mean life events like parent divorce would have diff meaning to each sibling-explain finding MZ twins dont show perfect concordance-
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The Nature Nurture Debate-evaluation-Constructivism
People create own nurture by selecting environments appropiate for their nature-aggressive child likely feel comfortable with other aggresive child-Plomin refers this as Niche buliding-further evidence impossible+illogical seperate nature+nurture
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Idea any attempt break up behaviour+experience is innapropiate as can only be understood by analysing person or behaviour as whole.
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Holism+Reductionism- Reductionism
Analyses behaviour by breaking it down into its constituent parts-all phenomena should be explained using most basic principles
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Holism+Reductionism-levels of explanation in psychology
suggests there r diff ways viewing same phenomena in psychology-can be placed within a hierachy of science with more precise+micro of these disciples at bottom+more general+macro at top.
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Holism+Reductionism-Biological Reductionism
based on premise that we r biological organisms made up of physiological tructures+processes.All behaviour at some level biological so can explained neurochemical,neuropsychological,evolutionary+genetic.
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Holism+Reductionism-Environmental (stimulus-response) reductionism
break complex learning into stimulus-response links that r measurable within lab.
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Holism+Reductionism-evaluation-The case for Holism-
Effects conformity to social roles+deinviduation of prisoners cant be understood by studying participants as individuals-shows holistic provide more complete+global understand behaviour than reductionist
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Holism+Reductionism-evaluation-The case against Holism
Explanations can become vauge+speculative as become more complex.-humanisitc approach tends be criticised for lack empirial evidence+seen loose set of concepts.+if mant factors-difficult stablish which most influential
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Holism+Reductionism- evaluation - The case for Reductionism
Makes possible conduct experiments or record observations in way thats meaningful+reliable +behaviourist approach demonstrates how complex learning could be broken down-stimulus-response within lab-gives psych greater credability-equal terms science
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Holism+Reductionism-evaluation-The case against Reductionism
Accused of oversimplifying complex phenomena leading to loss of validity.-means reductionist explanations can only ever form part of an explanation
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Idiographic and nomothetic approaches-Idiographic approach
Attempts describe nature of individual.People studied as unique entities each with own subjective experiences,motivations+values-describe richness human exp+gain insight-qualitative data,unstructured interviews,case studies+other self report measures
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Idiographi+Nomothetic approaches-Nemothetic
Aim to produce general laws of human behaviour.Provide benchmark which people can be compared,classified+measured on basis which likely future behaviour predicted,controlled.-experiments-study large number P to establish which similar
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Idiographic+Nomothetic approaches-Examples idographic in psychology
humansitc-best eg.Rogers+Maslow took phenomenological approach to study of humans+only interested documenting conscious experience of individual 'self'-them being 'anti scientific' were more comcerned investigating unique experiences than general law
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Idiographic+Nomothetic approach-examples Nomothetic in psychology-tends be feature of reductionist,determinist
Skinner+behaviourists studied response hundreds of rats,cats,pigeons etc in order develop laws of learning
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Idiographic+Nomothetic approaches-evaluation-The case for Idiographic approach
with its depth qualitative methods of investigation provides complete+global account of the indiviudal.+findings may reveal important insights about normal functioning which may contribute to overall understanding
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Idiographic+Nomothetic approaches-The case against Idiographic
Narrow+restricted nature of work. Methods associated with this approach-eg case studies-tend be least scientifict -conclusions often rely on subjective interpretation of researcher +such r open to bias
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Idiographic +Nomothetic approach-The case for Nomothetic
Process involved tends be more scientific,mirroring those employed natural sciences-testing under standardalised conditions using data sets provide groups averages,prediction+control.-have enabled psychologists establish norms typical behaviour-creds
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Idiographic+Nomothetic approach-The case against Nomothetic
has been accused of 'losing the whole person' within psych. Knowing there is 1% lifetime risk developing schziophrenia tells little what life like for sufferer-means in search generalities-nomothetic may overlook richness of human experience
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Ethical Implications of research studies+theory-ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS
May arise when conflict psychologist+need gain valid+valuable research whilst preserving rights+dignity of P.-ethical guidelines established helped protect those involved research.Wider ethical imp-have have little say how findings represented media
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Ethical implications of research studies+theory-SOCIALLY SENSITIVE RESEARCH
some research more controversial+subject greater social sensitivity than others.studies that tackle socially sensitive 'taboo' topics such as aspects race or sexuality also attract good deal attention -however shouldnt lead psychologists shying away
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Ethical implications of research studies+theory-Ethical issues in socially sensitive research-IMPLICATIONS
wider effects of such research should be carefully considered as some studies seen as giving scientific credence to prejudice+discrimination such as studies examining racial basis of intelligence
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Ethical implications of research studies+theory-ethical issues in socially sensitive research-USES/PUBLIC POLICY
what is the research likely used for?what would happen if used for wrong purpose?related to idea that findings may be adopted by gov for political ends or shape public policy
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Ethical implications of research studies+theory-socially sensitive research-THE VALIDITY OF RESEARCH
some findings that presented as objective+value free in past have turned out be highly suspect+some cases fraudulent -but modern researchers more up front about own biases+preconceptions +include comment in their publications
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Ethical Implications of research studies+theory-evaluation-Benefits of socially sensitive research
Socially sensitive research has benefitted society-research into eyewtiness testimony has reduced risk of miscarriages of justice within legal system -suggests may play valuable role in society
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Ethical implications of research studies+theory-evaluation-Framing the question
Sieber+Stanley warn that way in which research questions r phrased+investigated may influence findings interpreted-suggests investigators must approach with open mind+be prepared have preconecptions challenged if they avoid misrepresenting minority
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emthical implications of research studies+theory-evaluation-cost and benefits
some of social consequences of research involving vulnerable groups may be difficult to anticipate. as such assessments of the 'worth' of such research r invaribly subjective+the real impact of research can only ever be known once been named public
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Gender Bias-Alpha Bias


exggerates or overestimates diffs between the sexes-more likely devalue females in relation to their male counterparts. Sociobiological theory-Wilson-male impregnate as many women-pass on genes+females who engage in same behaviour regarded as

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What are they regarded as?


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Gender Bias- Beta Bias


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Gender Bias- Androcentrism


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