key ideas exam

  • Created by: laurenp10
  • Created on: 10-01-19 14:49
when was the enlightenment?
18th century
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What are the characteristics of democracy
Majority voting to reach decisions directly or to elect representatives.
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what do social scientists mean when they describe something as a theory?
an explanation for something which has not yet been proved to be false.
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What is the relationship between capitalism and industrialism
Capitalism led to industrialism in Europe and America but not everywhere else
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How do capitalists accumulate more capital?
They reinvested profits made through production so that they could accumulate even more.
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how did Thomas Paine understand individualism?
Men are social and sufficiently rational to recognise that they should not interfere with the life of other men
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what did thomas paine think everyone needed to pursue their own happiness?
Moral education
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what assumptions did utilitarians make about human nature?
people are driven by sensations of pleasure and pain
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what is the relationship between modernity and progress
modernity was when people started to believe in progress
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what term did Comte come up with?
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what did the division of labour 'presuppose'?
societies stuck together because of beliefs and sentiments
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where does the power of moral ideas come from?
it comes from the fact that society is so much bigger than us
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how do moral feelings shape our actions?
they remind us of our social affiliations and obligations
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what is organic solidarity?
the modern version of social glue in which everyone has a role in the advanced division of labour and everyone understands they are dependent on others.
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according to Durkheim, where does the idea of God come from?
It is a representation of society
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Paul Ekman thought there six universal emotions, what were they?
happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust and surprise
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what does cognitive theory say about emotion?
experiencing an emotion is influenced by our perception, judgement and assessment of a situation
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explain the strong version of the view of emotion put forward by social constructionism
emotions are entirely the product of sociocultural processes; they are entirely learnt and contextual; they are not inherent or pre-existing
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what is patriarchy?
the name given to male dominance in a society
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what is the gendered division of labour?
how women and men tend to have different roles in the home which are replicated in the workplace
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why is there more than one version of feminism
different versions of feminism have different explanations of the causes of women's oppression. they also tend to appear at different historical points.
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where do signs come from in Peirce's theory of semiotics
the social world
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where does logic come from according to Peirce
We think using the signs we get from society and these signs are already connected to each other. we call it logic when we put all these signs together in their predetermined ways.
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why does cooley say we only relate to each other in our imaginations?
we can never really know what goes on in each other's heads
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according to Mead, how do we learn to think reflexively?
we learn from growing up in society
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why is there more than one version of you? (interactionism)
we act different around different people
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what does Mean mean when he says the meaning of a gesture is the response it gets
You make a gesture and then the other person thinks about what you intend by it and responds to that. this response to something that hasn't even happened is the meaning of the original gesture
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what is the generalised other?
the organised and generalised attitude of a social group
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what is the different between the i and me in Mead's theory
me is the version of the person that gets judged - it is an object, it can be thought about. the I is the version of the person that judges. she is a subject, she does the thinking
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what is Blumers theory?
symbolic interactionism - people create the world by giving meaning to objects in it
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what is Schutz theory?
Phenomenology (focuses on the reality of everyday life and how individuals make sense of their every day experiences) - Sociology should only study how people manage to give meanings to things
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why is ethnomethodology against using people's talk about their actions and thoughts as a resource to set up explanations about their actions
talk does not describe order. since there is no order to describe you cannot use what people say to help you explain social order. rather than describing order, talk created order.
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what are breaching demonstrations?
it is designed to disrupt a micro-social reality in order to illustrate the fragility that underlies the order and routines of everyday reality
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what does Goffman call the everyday rules of polite behaviour?
Interaction rituals
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why does Goffman say we need to interact with others?
to support our idea that we have unique selves
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what does demeanour mean according to Goffman?
the element of an individual's ceremonial behaviour that expresses to people nearby that that person has desirable or undesirable qualities
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what does deference mean according to Goffman?
A symbolic means by which appreciation is regularly conveyed to another person
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what does Goffman mean by co-present persons?
people who are physically present in a shared space
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Goffman - Dramaturgy
social interaction has some commonality with a theatrical drama: in this view, interaction is enacted there are different roles, parts and routines. different settings and regions - front stage and back stage.
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what is the front stage according to goffman?
front stage is where the performance is given
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what is the back stage according to goffman?
where front stage performances are practiced, repaired, assessed and reconfigured.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the characteristics of democracy


Majority voting to reach decisions directly or to elect representatives.

Card 3


what do social scientists mean when they describe something as a theory?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the relationship between capitalism and industrialism


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How do capitalists accumulate more capital?


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