Input Device
Device used to enter data into a device for processing
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Output Device
Device used to present information/the result of processing to the user
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Storage Device
Device used to store data for processing later
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Solid state storage device
A storage device with no moving parts – eg memory stick. Robust. Not sensitive to movement. Useful for transporting data. Main storage for PDAs or mobile devices.
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Magnetic storage device
A hard disk drive. Has a high capacity of storage available. Sensitive to movement of system due to moving parts. Used as main storage for computers, eg to store OS.
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Optical storage device
A storage device read by a laser eg CD-Rom DVD-Rom
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Can be one of two states either a 0 or 1. Used so that computers can be based on electronic logic circuits.
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Performs processing on a computer. Fetches instructions from memory. Fetches data from memory. Decodes instructions. Executes instructions.
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Clock speed
The higher the clock speed the faster the CPU will run. Represents the number of fetch execute cycles / instructions the CPU can process in a given time.
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Quad Core CPU
The computer has 4 cores which are independent processors within the CPU working simultaneously which can perform multiple tasks
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Stores operating system, programs and data which are currently in use
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Loads the start-up program used to boot up the computer when it is switched on. Loads the operating system.
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Virtual Memory
A section of the hard disk is used to act as RAM. Allows more programs / data to be loaded when the amount of RAM is insufficient.
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Anti Virus Software
Regularly checks computer for programs designed to harm system or that could result in financial loss/identity theft. Disables and deletes these programs. Needs regular updates.
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Disk Defragmenter
Moves parts of files around so that all parts of a file are stored together allowing files to be accessed more quickly. Free space is collected together allowing large files to be saved easily.
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Physical security measures
Put computers/servers in locked rooms, lock down cables for laptops.
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User groups/access levels
Different users are given rights to different data according their responsibility/need to protect privacy
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Operating System
Software that controls the operation of a computer. Provides a user interface. Platform for applications. Memory management. File/disk management
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Single User Operating System
Only one user can use the computer at any given time.
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Multi Tasking Operating System
Computer can appear to run several programs at the same time by sharing processor time between programs. Eg. Use word processor while playing music file.
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Scans the computer periodically to check if any software has been installed which contains code that may harm the computer.
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Software that allows only authorised access to the network/authorised users/programs to share data out of the network.
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Disk defragmenter
Reorganises files so that they are stored in blocks next to each other. Makes file access quicker and may free up space.
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Disk cleanup
Searches for and deletes files which are no longer needed. Frees up space which can be used for other programs.
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System cleanup
Search the computer for files/programs which are no longer needed and deletes them
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System update
Search on the Internet for updated versions of the software on the computer and downloading/installing the updates – because this ensures that the computer always has the latest version including any fixes for known problems / security issues.
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Automatic update
Checks on the Internet for newer versions of programs which are installed. If found it download / installs the software.
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Custom Software
Software created especially for a user. Useful if appropriate software may not exist, Existing software may contain additional features (more complex and expensive)
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Open Source Software
License-free, source code is available for others to use/improve. Large community of open source developers can see and comment on code or can be consulted. Used as is, with no guarantees it will work. No need to pay for license. Can be modified
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Proprietary Software
Proprietary software is distributed only as a compiled program. Source code not available. Cannot be copied/altered without permission of the copyright owner.
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Off the Shelf Software
Software available now to buy straight away
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Character Set
All the characters which are can be represented by the computer system. There are many different character set standards such as ASCII, Unicode.
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American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Each character on a keyboard is given a numeric code. Code is then stored in binary. Each character takes 1 byte (8 bits). Text is stored as a series of bytes (1 per character).
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The concentration of pixels in an image. The higher the resolution more pixels are required for the picture larger size of the image file. The lower the resolution the fewer pixels required the smaller size of the file.
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Bitmap Image
The picture is split into dots/pixels. Each pixel given a binary code (representing what colour it is). The bitmap file contains on location of each pixel.
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Image Resolution
The concentration of pixels in an image. The higher the resolution more pixels are required for the picture larger size of the image file. The lower the resolution the fewer pixels required the smaller size of the file.
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A Database Management System. Software used to manage the database. Allows database to be queried/searched.
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Database Form
An input screen allowing chosen data items to be displayed and edited. Uses textboxes/drop down lists/checkboxes. When edited, the changes are updated in the database.
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Database Report
An output of the data in a database. A snapshot of the data at a given time/when printed. Laid out in a specified format. Aggregates may be calculated and displayed.
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A real world object about which data is stored in a database. Corresponds to tables in the database. An instance of an entity is a record in the database
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A field in a database. An attributes of an entity. Eg. Name, DOB.
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Primary Key
Unique identifier within a table that identifies a record. Eg. Candidate Number
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Foreign Key
A primary key in one table that exists within another table. Used to link tables together.
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Ensures data falls within predetermined rules/boundaries. Does not mean the data is correct. Data is validated within code. Rules are set by the programmer. Eg. Only Enter a number between 1 and 10.
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Ensuring data is entered correctly – eg typing in a new password twice and comparing them to ensure they are the same.
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Local Area Network. A network which covers a small area like a building.
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Wide Area Network. Covers wide geographical area. Spans across countries/continents.
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All computers have equal status/no server controlling. To share data/files/devices between each other. Manageable for networks with small number of PCs attached (10 or less). Cheaper to install. No risk of server failure.
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Ring Topology
The devices are arranged in a circle. Each computer is responsible for passing the message on.
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Bus Topology
Has a single backbone cable and all the devices are attached to it.
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Star Topology
All connections are to a central device such as a wiring cabinet with switches.
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IP Address
Internet Protocol address. Unique address that is assigned to router attached to a network.
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MAC Address
Media Access Control address. A unique address fixed into a network interface card. Used to identify a device attached to a network.
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Data transmitted across networks is broken up into smaller chunks called packets. Each packet is sent individually and reassembled at the receiving end.
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Set of rules that govern communications on a network.
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A string that allows access to a certain part of a system. Can be made stronger through use of alpha-numeric passwords, case sensitive, use of symbols, minimum length.
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Method of applying a mathematical algorithm to data in order to scramble it to make it secure. Can only be unscrambled at the receiving it if properly unencrypted.
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Acceptable Use Policy
Can agreement by a user on what they can and cannot do when using a computer network, either at workplace or school.
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All data on a network is backed up according to a backup policy which states whose job it is to do the back-ups how often the back-ups will be made and when it will be done and where back-up data will be stored
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Taking old backup/network data and storing it offline in a secure place. Reduces space required on the network.
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Disaster Recovery
If a network is damaged or destroyed data can be restored quickly to ensure no down time for a business.
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Converts digital signals to analogue signals and back again.
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Connects a LAN to a WAN (connects a network to the internet)
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Controls access to the network. Check passwords entered on any computer. Allows files/resources to be shared amongst users. Stores, delivers and sends emails for users. Controls the access of computers to the internet.
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DNS Server
Domain Name Server. DNS servers have a database of IP addresses constantly updated by other DNS servers. When you request an address (URL), the DNS server looks up the URL and returns the IP address, or searches for the address from other DNS servers
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Hyper Text Mark-up Language. Text file containing the text to be displayed on web page. Uses tags which indicate how to display data. Its an open standard that will display data correctly on all browsers
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It reduces the size of the file which needs to be transmitted. Shortens download time. Reduces Internet traffic. Allows multimedia files to be streamed online
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Lossy Compression
Data is uncompressed it is not exactly the same as the original but the difference is so small that it cannot normally be noticed eg music files (mp3).
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Lossless Compression
When the data is uncompressed it is restored completely to the original status eg compressed text files.
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High Level Code
Instructions use words eg. writeline. Designed to be read by human programmers. Portable/translated to use on different machines
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Machine Code
Instructions are in binary code to be read/executed by the computer. Specific to a particular machine
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Translates one line of high level code at a time and executes it. Stops when it finds an error. Useful for debugging code.
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Translator/Error Diagnostics
Tools built within an IDE that allow the programmer to check for errors. Tells you what the error is and where it is by underlining incorrect parts of code. Allows you to enter the corrected code.
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IF statement
An example of Selection.
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CASE statement
An example of Selection.
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Creating a loop in code.
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An identifier which refers to a location in memory which stores a value which can be changed as the program is running.
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A variable value that is preset in the code – eg. VAT = 20%. If the rate of VAT changes it only requires one change in the code.
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A variable data type which is a whole number.
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A variable data type that can contain letters and/or numbers. You cannot perform a calculation on a number stored as a string. It must be converted to a integer or real value.
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A variable data type which can be set to either true or false.
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A group of variables of the same data type stored under one identifier.
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Syntax Error
An error in the rules/grammar of a programming language eg. End F instead of End If
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Logic Error
When code compiles and runs, but doesn’t perform its intended task.
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Test Data
Data that is used to test a new system. Is either Normal, Extreme or Erroneous.
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Normal Test Data
Test data that falls within the bounds of the validation rules
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Extreme Test Data
Test data that is at the upper or lower limit of the validation rules – eg. A Number between 1-10 would be either 1 or 10.
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Erroneous Test Data
Test data that will force an error on a validation rule. It is purposely incorrect.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Output Device


Device used to present information/the result of processing to the user

Card 3


Storage Device


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Solid state storage device


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Magnetic storage device


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


miles gallagher


very useful 

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