the field in which you are employed
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How is language connected to occupation?
occupations develop their own language features/ source of language change/ attitudes of society are reflected through occupation.
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Forms and Functions of Talk
forms= instructions/briefing/ marriage ceremony (explicit sense)/ telling a manager about an incident (looser sense)
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General Functions of Langauge in contexts
communicate info/requesting help/confirming arrangements/ instructing
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language interactions
may occur between those in a given occupation or between those inside and those outside/ language will vary
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specialised lang of occupation/ used for speed,efficiency and privacy
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Undergoing grammatical Conversions
noun phrase (ministery of transport test)-acronym (MOT)-turns into verb (MOT'ed)
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Occupational Register
words/phrases that are used solely in a particular job or, on occassion, originated in specific occupation and are now more widely used.
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Babboon ***- corned beef/ Salty- experienced/ Maggot- sleeping bag/ Chow hall- dining hall/ creates a sense of belonging and ownership throughout hierarchy
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Howard & Giles- Accomodation Theory (1973)
Jargon (converge with coworkers, diverge with customers or people at differet point of hierarchy) Convergence shows knowledge and expertise.
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Lexis in Occupation
well edicated people spoke latin/ borrowed words from latin to expand language/ 80% of english words=latin/ 60% of all english words have greek or latin origin/ 10% of latin has found its way into english without intermediary (usually french)
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Origin of Lexis
words if greek origin have entered english in 1 of 3 ways: 1) indirectly from latin 2) borrowed directly from greek writers 3) combining greek elements in new ways./ Latin is still used because it sounds knowledgable and brings prestige.
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Restricted terms
Words/phrases only used in specific context eg~ court room, hospital, surgery, police station or classroom
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Idiomatic Phrases
Groups of words that do not mean what they appear to mean. eg~ bringing home the bacon (getting money) and spinning a yarn (telling lies)
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Lexis in Business
Michael Nelson researched into British National Corpus. Found a clear semantic field of business~eg-premises, departments, depot. Less lexis to do with personal issues were included in the workplace. There was also an overlap of lexis in occupations.
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Lexis used for a purpose
companies often use euphamisms when having to deal with difficult situations eg~ released- fired, get rid of- decruit.
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a paid occupation, especially one that involves prolonged training and a formal qualification
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a paid position of regular employment
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Discourse Structure
internal structure of a text~ usually predictable eg- school reports (euphamistic language masks a negative)
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Discourse Community - John Swales
professional groups that share a set of common goals, communicate internally using one or more genres, use specialist discourse and possess a required level of knowledge.
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Drew and Heritage 1993
members of a discourse community share inferential frameworks:consisting of implicit ways of thinking, communicating and behaving. Hierachy of power with asymmetrical relationships marked by lang use.
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inferential frameworks
knowledge built up over time and used in order to understand meanings that are implicit.
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Lang can be misinterpreted due to acroynms, accents, double meanings, vague language etc.
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Kim and Elder 2009
researched into korean pilots and air traffic staff experiencing miscommunication when talking to american collegues. not due to language difference but unhelpful abbreviation, unnecessary elaborations or idiomatic phrases
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Plain English Campaign 1979-present
combat confusing and unecessary jargon, advises organisations to use plainer lang, organisations can apply for the Crystal Mark, which shows the plain english campaign has approved their documents.
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Language of polititions
pauses~dramtic effect, RP, emotive lanuage~humanises them, gesticulation~paralinguistic features, adressing everyone as a whole, rhetorical questions, lack of fillers~makes us trust what is said.
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concerned with power: power to make decisions and power to control (eg~people's thoughts on topic). HAve to choose words carefully as believe lang has power to influence thought, believe in linguistic relativity
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Linguistic Relativity
how the structure of a language affects the way in ehich it's respective speakers conceptualize their world eg~ their world view
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Instrumental power
maintain and enforce authority/ gain complicity
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Influencial Power
persuade others to do something~often used to get people to join polititions view then instrumental power is used to control people with that view.
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Generic noun
a nouon that does not specify gender
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Colloquial idiomatic language
informal words or phrases that are familiar to our culture and a part of our everyday language.
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Abstract noun
no physical existance. part of emotive language
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Syntactic patterning
when the order of words has developed a pattern of repetition or a similar order throughout eg~same tone
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Synthetic personalisation
personalised language such as second person pronoun 'you' to construct a relationship between text producers and receivers. essentially forming a 'fake relationship'.
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Political rhetoric
Power is the main concept behind political rhetoric
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Wareing 1999
classified power as political ( held by polititions, law enforcement, law courts etc.), personal (hold power due to their occupation or role eg~teachers) or social (power because of social variables class, age and gender. eg~white, middle class, men)
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Power in/behind discourse
Fairclough 2001, distinguishes between power in discourse ( way power is manifested in situations through lang) and power behind discourse ( focus on social+ideological reasons behind the enactment of power ~ contextual factors)
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belief or attitude held by an individual or group. A text producer may attemot to project a certain ideology onto a text receiver who is positioned as an implied reader so that they are invited to share ideology.
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Deontic Modality
indicates how the world outght to be according to certain norms. generally indicates some action that would change the world so that it meets th
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A deontic expression
indicates that the state of the world does not meet these standards.
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Deontic modal
generally indicates some action that would change the world so that it meets these standards/ideals
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Epistemic modality
modality that connotes how much certainty or evidence a speaker has for the proposition expressed by his/her utterence.
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Metaphorical construction
used through description of abstract values.
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Temporal dialect terms
Use of terms such as 'the past' and 'today' draw attention to the 'new beginning'
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repetition at the start of each sentence, excessive use for maximum impact before contrasive
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Legal language
the language used by lawyers is a highly developed occupational variety with distinctive features. Result of needing to be precise and unambiguous as possible, legal system rooted in history and tradition.
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main componant: lexis
use of archaic words (hereby), use of french (lieu) and latin (habeous corpus), use of formal words and phrases (without let or hinderance)
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main componant: grammar
sentences are often lengthy and complex with many subordinate clauses, arises from need for there not to be any miscommunication and all eventualities are covered.
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sub-language (according to Tiersma 1999) connected with law. Can be seen as negative term.
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Civil Courts Reformed
1999 language of civil courts reformed, many obscure terms were dropped (eg~ affidavit-statement of truth). etimology of words being french or latin= removed.
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not understood by everyone/ sounds professional. unneccesarily complex, scientific and technical. euphamisms distract, vague and imprecise sometimes.
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Card 2


occupations develop their own language features/ source of language change/ attitudes of society are reflected through occupation.


How is language connected to occupation?

Card 3


forms= instructions/briefing/ marriage ceremony (explicit sense)/ telling a manager about an incident (looser sense)


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Card 4


communicate info/requesting help/confirming arrangements/ instructing


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


may occur between those in a given occupation or between those inside and those outside/ language will vary


Preview of the back of card 5
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