Life in fascist Italy 1922-40

Mussolini's aims
Secure his position,Transform Italian society/character,Fascism above traditional loyalties,Tough,disciplined,physically and psychologically for war,Youth preserve regime,Increase birth rate
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Overall effect of Mussolini's policies on the public and powerful groups
Jeopardised his support among both
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Why did Mussolini want to increase the birth rate?
Reduce the amount of women in work as Fascist policy stated their priority should be to provide the Duce with soldiers for war
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Mussolini's intentions with the Catholic Church?
Concerned to secure their support-powerful group, Acceptance of a potentially rival doctrine, Roman Catholic Church brought worldwide attention it Italy - source of pride
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What actions did Mussolini take towards the Church in 1923?
Increased clerical salaries, Religious education reinstated in elementary, Crucifix restored in schools and courts
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Mussolini's successes in the Catholic Church
Pope withdrew support for Popolari 1923,Lateran Agreement,State appointed clergy,Church marriages recognised by state,Church control of divorce,Catholic action youth groups banned politics,Priests participated in ONB,Senior clergy supported wars
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How did the senior clergy react to wars in Spain and Ethiopia?
Supported them - saw them as 'Christian Crusades'
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Mussolini's failures in the Catholic Church
Catholic Action, Church declared the creed of the Fascist Balilla (ONB),Radio Vatican broadcasted alternative news,Antisemitism,By 1939 alliance was over and Pope openly regretted his support
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Catholic Action
1931: Government tried to suppress Catholic Action. This body provided a rival to Fascism's own youth and leisure organisations and had 250,000 members. Church was determined to preserve influence over the young
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Fascism's attitude towards women
Traditional attitude towards the place of women and was happy to ban contraception and to encourage women to have children, traditional gender roles, 12 children per family
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'Battle for births'
Launched in 1927 - designed to increase the population from 40 million to 60 million by 1950, wanted to raise population dramatically and so provide soldiers for his armies and colonists for the empire , Propaganda - prizes to prolific mothers
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Marriage loans
Part of a loan repayment cancelled as each new child was born
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Married men
With at least 6 children exempt from taxation, private companies promoted married men and state railway company sacked all women, 1930s jobs and promotions only open to married men with children (civil service), divorce illegal
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1933 quota system in public sector
Limited to 10% of workforce
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Mussolini's successes with women
Infant welfare clinics,Bachelors taxed increasingly-230m lire 1939,Discrimination towards women masked unemployment problems,Pope Pius XI supported his policies,OMNI,Women enlisted in campaign against LoN 1935,Encouraged to attend rallies/propaganda
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Women served on OMNI which helped mothers and did charity work
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Mussolini's failures with women
Rate marriage unchanged,Birth rate declined until 1936 and ^slightly afterwards,9%^ in women at uni,Failed reach target population-only 47.5m 1950,Women made up 33% industrial workforce 1936 only 3% fall since 1921,Welfare reliance,Age marriage ^
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How did births per women change between 1911-36?
1911 - 147 births per 1000 women, 1936-102 births per 1000 women
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Poor women
Still had to work to support their families
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Middle-class women
Valued independence so wouldn't quit work
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Mussolini's intentions with the youth
Wanted millions of aggressive,athletic,disciplined Fascists spreading Italian power overseas-led to interest in education and training the young,Loyal youth to preserve regime,Influence young people in their education and leisure time
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Mussolini's actions with the youth
Curriculum changes, Fascism and universities, Control over teachers, Fascist youth
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Curriculum changes
RE compulsory 1923,Students given copy of Life of Mussolini,1926 101 history books banned,1928 single gov textbook,1935 Military education,1936 lessons in Fascist culture, 1938 antisemitism in schools
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Control over teachers
1925 public employees could be dismissed,1929 Oath of loyalty,1931 Fascist Association,1933 all teachers had to be party members,1934 fascist uniforms on occasions,1938 radical laws - dismissal of Jews
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Fascism and universities
Uni's generally left alone, youth organisation GUF promoted Fascism,Littoriali games 1934-40,Annual competitions to train new elite,Promoted Fascist ideas and Fitness/Military training
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Fascist youth
ONB 1926 to organise youth movements,1930s membership compulsory in state schools,By 1937 over 7m joined ONB,Military training/Fascist ideologies
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Mussolini's successes with the youth
Bottai's school charter 1939,Dissolution of Catholic boy scouts 1928 and restrictions on Catholic Action,Teachers suspect political views dismissed 1925,1929 teachers oath of loyalty,Fascist Teachers Association,GUF+Littoriali games,ONB
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How was Bottai's school charter of 1939 a success?
Broke down class barriers and placed more emphasis on tech, special schools for peasants, manual work became part of the curriculum
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Fascist Teachers Association
Created in 1931 and made compulsory in 1937 - Regulate the profession
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Mussolini's failures with the youth
Appointed Gentile as education minister,More case of adding courses rather that reorganisation of curriculum,Teachers took oath of loyalty but weren't committed Fascists,Struggled to dominate higher ed,Rival orgs,Education disrupted with war
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Gentile as education minister
Ignored illiteracy (30% 1921) and discriminated against women, attendance at school fell by 100,000 in first four Fascist years
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What was the main reason as to why uni students joined the GUF?
Mostly joined for career or social purposes
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Purpose of dopolavoro
Set up in 1925 to m an alternative to the new defunct trade-union clubs, virtually every town had its dopolavoro clubhouse
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In the mid 1930s, what did the dopolavoro consist of?
All football clubs, 1350 theatres, 2000 drama societies, 3000 brass bands and 8000 libraries
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Dopolavoro membership
Membership had risen from 300,000 in 1926 to 2.4m in 1935 - 20% of industrial workforce and 7% of peasantry - Membership peaked in 1939 at 4 million
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Why was dopolavoro so popular?
Working-class Italians were quick to take advantage of subsidised sport, Emphasis not on indoctrination but on having a good time, relative absence of propaganda
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Example that there was relative absence of propaganda in dopolavoro
Carro di Tespi performed in Rome 7 times in 1938 - 5 were comedies and only two serious plays - neither of which had any direct relevance to Fascist ideology
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Increasing Fascist interference in social life
Counter-productive-appearing to most as interfering and ridiculous, Fascist salute replacement for handshake compulsory 1937,Attempts to change calendar year,Fascism condemned women for wearing make-up and tried to ban them wearing trousers
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Mussolini's aims in domestic policy
To maintain or increase his power, To transform Italian society
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How did Mussolini maintain or increase his power with domestic policy?
Lateran Agreements with Church, Schools, ONB, Dopolavoro, Antisemitism
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How did Mussolini try to transform Italian society with his domestic policy?
Battle for Births, Antisemitism, Dopolavoro, ONB, Schools
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Argue for - 'Mussolini achieved his aims in domestic policy'
Substantial public support, Fascists initiatives apparently always great successes,Public did believe Italy was the greatest nation-Victories 1934/1938 world cups and possessing heavy weight boxing champ
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Argue against - 'Mussolini achieved his aims in domestic policy'
Fascist failures 'battle for births' quickly forgotten,Public not wholly taken in by incessant propaganda,Enhanced support derived from FP,Concordat with Church only real achievement but began to sour
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Conclusion on Mussolini's domestic policy
Race of aggressive obedient Fascists never materialised, did not change traditional habits and attitudes,Outward conformity but little inner conviction-uncertain how many true converts,Older gens resistant to change,Popular support declined-intrusiv
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Why were some policies welcomed compared to others?
If they afforded some apparent advantage - Dopolavaro cheap holidays, but resisted if threatened habits and traditions
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When did the Pope withdraw support for Catholic Popolari party?
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When was the Fascist leisure organisation, Dopolavoro, set up?
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When was the youth organisation, the ONB, set up?
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When was the 'battle for births' launched to increase population?
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When did the Lateran Agreements end major disputes between Italian state and the Catholic Church?
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When were teachers forced to take an oath of loyalty ?
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When was the Fascist Teacher's Association set up ?
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When were Anti-Jewish radical laws introduced?
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Did Mussolini have the same view towards Jews as Hitler?
Never shared Hitler's hatred - 1932 '(Italian Jews) have always behaved well as citizens and fought courageously as soldiers', allowed 3000 German Jews to enter the country as refugees
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Prominent Fascists and their connections to Jews
Balbo had close ties to Jewish Community, Ciano wrote in his diary 1937 'Nor do i believe that we shall unleash in Italy an antisemitic campaign'.
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What led Mussolini to pursue antisemitism?
Successful campaign in Ethiopia 1935-6-led Italians believing they were superior race, Nazi radical ideas circulated in Italy-Mussolini persuaded Jewish influence in resistance
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Jewish influence in the resistance
Several members of the Italian anti-Fascist group 'Justice and Liberty' were Jews
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'Manifesto of Racial Scientists'
Published in July 1938 - 'Jews do not belong to Italian race'
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When were foreign born Jews banned from state schools?
August 1938
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When were Italian Jews banned from state schools and teaching?
September 1938
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When were Jews excluded from membership of the National Fascist party and professional and cultural organisations, and prevented from owning large companies or estates?
October 1938
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When were Jews forbidden to marry non-Jews, excluded from military and banking?
November 1938 - lost much of their liberty/ standard of living
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When did Mussolini eventually collaborate with Nazi plans to exterminate Jews in Europe?
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Which Jews were exempt from antisemitism laws?
Those who served Italy in WWI or served the Fascist regime in some capacity - Farinacci kept his Jewish secretary
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Why were antisemitic laws not effective in Italy?
Fascist officials made little effort to enforce laws - they had relations with the Church or Jews
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How many Italian Jews were sent to Nazi death camps and how many survived?
7,500 sent to death camps of which only 600 survived
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Evidence that relations between fascism and the Catholic Church improved
Pope withdrew support for Popolari 1923, Lateran Agreements - Pope recognised state,Catholicism recognised as state religion and priests banned from political activities, Church support for invasion of Ethiopia 1936
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Evidence that relations between fascism and the Catholic Church remained tense
Dispute over Catholic Action youth group 1931, Papal opposition to anti-Semitic policies 1938
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Jeopardised his support among both


Overall effect of Mussolini's policies on the public and powerful groups

Card 3


Reduce the amount of women in work as Fascist policy stated their priority should be to provide the Duce with soldiers for war


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Concerned to secure their support-powerful group, Acceptance of a potentially rival doctrine, Roman Catholic Church brought worldwide attention it Italy - source of pride


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Increased clerical salaries, Religious education reinstated in elementary, Crucifix restored in schools and courts


Preview of the back of card 5
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