Media: Topic 2

  • Created by: Ashley2K
  • Created on: 07-06-17 10:53
What does Bagdikian note in regards to concentration of media ownership?
He notes that in 1983, 50 corporations controlled the vast majority of all news media in the USA, but by 2004 media ownership was concentrated in seven corporations.
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What does Curran note in regards to the ownership of British newspapers?
He suggests that ownership of British newspapers has always been concentrated with four men owning one in every two national and daily newspapers sold in Britain 1937.
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Who are Rupert Murdoch and Richard Branson?
Murdoch owns News Corp and Branson owns Virgin Media, the two largest television companies.
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What are global conglomerations?
Global conglomerations are major media companies with a presence in many countries.
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What is horizontal integration?
This refers to the when global media companies often cross media boundaries and invest in a wide range of media products e.g. newscorp owns newspapers, magazines, book publishers, terrestrial and satellite television.
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What is vertical integration?
This is when media companies have focused on increasing economic control over all aspects of the production process in order to maximise profits, e.g. time warner.
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What is diversification?
This is where a company diversifies into other fields from media products, e.g. Virgin began as a music label and record shop chain expanding into cola, vodka, banking, insurance, transport and television.
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What is synergy?
Where media companies use their very diverse interests to package or synergise their products e.g. a soundtrack album to a film, a video game and toy action figures.
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What is technological convergence?
Technological convergence is a recent trend involving putting several technologies into one media product e.g. interactive television, laptops, mp3 players and mobile phones.
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What two reasons does Doyle suggest make the examination of ownership and control patterns important?
He suggests 1. All points of view need to be heard if society is to be truly democratic 2. Abuses of power and influence by elites need to be monitored by a free media. For these reasons, he suggests the concentration of media ownership is dangerous.
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What is the pluralist theory of media ownership?
Pluraists argue that media owners are generally responsible in the way that they manage information because media content is mainly shaped by consumer demand. They therefore give the buying public what they want. They also suggest journalists have a
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What is the pluralist theory of media ownership? (2)
strong sense of professional ethics. They suggest that the mass media is an essential part of the democratic process. Essentially, they argue consumers are the power holders.
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How do pluralists describe PSB? (Public service broadcasting)
They use examples such as the state owned BBC, pointing out they had a legal obligation to inform, educate and ensure all programming is pluralistic and diverse. Pluralists argue PSB's are impartial and objective.
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How do pluralists describe media professionalism?
Pluralists argue that the professionalism of journalists and editors also constrains the powers of owners. They argue that journalists are fierce in their pursuit of the truth and consequently they have too much integrity to be biased.
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What do Marxists believe the capitalist class use the media for?
They believe they use the media to reproduce class inequality and transmit ruling class ideology.
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What is the concept of "false class-consciousness" suggested by Marxists?
False class-consciousness is where working class people accept that capitalism is just a system that benefits all social groups equally, failing to see the reality that they are being exploited.
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What did Marxist sociologist Miliband argue the role of the media was?
He argued the role of media is to shape how we think about the world. He suggests that audiences are rarely informed about important issues such as inequalities in wealth or why poverty persists. Meaning owners filter anti-capitalist content.
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Why do Tunstall and Palmer suggest that governments are no longer in control of the media?
They argue that governments are no longer interested in controlling the activities of media owners because they need their support to either gain power or hang on to it.
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According to Curran, what did press barons do in the period 1920-1950?
Curran suggested that in this period press barons openly boasted that they ran their newspapers for the express purpose of propaganda that reflected their political views. He also points out that most newspapers in Britain support Conservatives.
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What does Curran suggest about the emergence of Rupert Murdoch in the period 1974-92?
He suggests Murdoch, as part of the capitalist elite, supports the Conservative party as they are generally supportive of capitalist interests. He acknowledges Murdoch's motives are economic rather than ideological.
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Why does Curran disagree with pluralists?
He argues that media owners are proven to intervene in media content, arguing since 2000 there has been even greater intervention by owners such as Murdoch.
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Why does Curran disagree with Marxists?
He disagrees with Marxists because he does not agree that media owners are collectivized in reproducing class inequality, but rather just pursue their economic goals in a ruthlessly individualized way.
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What do the Glasgow University Media Group suggest about media content?
They suggest supports the interests of those who run the capitalist system. However, this is an unintended by-product of the social backgrounds of journalists and broadcasters rather than a conscious conspiracy.
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Why do the GUMP suggest journalists support middle-of-the-road consensus views?
They suggest that they hold these views because they are generally unoffensive. Journalists believe that these appeal to the majority of viewers. Ideas outside this consensus are viewed by 'journalists' as extremist and they are often excluded.
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Why do Barnett and Weymour argue such decisions have had a negative cultural effect?
They argue it because education, information and news have been increasingly sidelined. They compared television schedules in 1978, 88 and 98 finding television in Britain has been significantly dumbed down
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What do Barnett and Weymour mean when they suggest television has been significantly dumbed down?
They suggest that the number of one-off dramas and documentaries has halved, whilst soap operas and cheap reality shows have increased fivefold. There are also now more repeats and cheap American imports.
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What does the GUMG argue the journalistic consensus causes?
They argue is means the media set the agenda and decide what issues are discussed by society and which are not. This is known as agenda setting.
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What does agenda setting cause?
Agenda settings results in cultural hegemony, meaning the basic principles of capitalism and the rights of property ownership dominate media content and are presented as 'normal' and 'natural'
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Card 2


What does Curran note in regards to the ownership of British newspapers?


He suggests that ownership of British newspapers has always been concentrated with four men owning one in every two national and daily newspapers sold in Britain 1937.

Card 3


Who are Rupert Murdoch and Richard Branson?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are global conglomerations?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is horizontal integration?


Preview of the front of card 5
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