Medicine Through Time - Edexcel

What time period was Prehistoric?
Before 3000BC
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What time period was Ancient Egypt?
3000BC - 500BC
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What time period was Ancient Greece?
1000BC - 250BC
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What time period was Ancient Rome?
300BC - 600AD
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What time period was the Middle Ages?
400AD - 1500AD
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What time period was the Renaissance?
1500AD - 1750AD
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What time period was Industrial?
1750AD - 1900AD
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What time period was Modern?
1900AD - Present Day
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Who was Hippocrates?
Hippocrates was known as the Father of Medicine and he created the theory of the 4 Humours.
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What did the Greeks originally think caused disease?
Greeks believed the Gods made you ill and to get better the best option was to pray.
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What was the theory of the 4 Humours?
The 4 Humours theory was 4 fluids from the body (yellow bile, black bile, blood and phlegm) were what caused disease and the doing the opposite would help.
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What were some of the long term impacts Hippocrates had on medicine?
The Hippocratic Oath is taken by doctors, books used by doctors with his ideas wrote in them, clinical method of observation still used today and patients should exercise/eat healthy.
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What hindered Hippocrates' progress?
Many people still believed that the Gods caused illness and so would not believe Hippocrates.
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Who was Galen?
Galen was a doctor for the emperor and worked 500 years after Hippocrates.
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What did Galen believe?
Galen believed that the brain controlled the body not the heart and wanted to also improve the theory of the 4 Humours.
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What did Galen do to help improve medical knowledge?
Galen improved the theory of the 4 Humours by saying an imbalance caused the illness, he wrote books used by medical students for years and he used dissections to prove the brain controlled speech.
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What hindered Galen's progress?
Religious beliefs meant that no dissections could take place on humans and so had to be done on animals, due to this some of Galen's ideas were wrong and these ideas were not challenged for 1000s of years.
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How were the Church involved with Galen?
The Church agreed with Galen's views and so banned anyone from challenging his ideas even though some were wrong.
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What were the Roman ideas about what caused disease?
They believed either the Gods, an imbalance of the 4 Humours or bad air was the cause of disease.
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Who did the Romans get treated by?
They were either treated by doctors, fathers of the family, or other women. However they also believed going to temples or baths would help to treat disease.
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What treatments did the Romans use?
The Romans used prayer, balancing the humours, herbal remedies, unwashed wool, a good diet and exercise as treatments.
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What was public health like in the Roman period?
During the Roman period there was baths, aqueducts, hypocaust, public toilets, hospitals, sewers and people also washed with olive oil to get themselves clean.
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What 3 aspects benefitted public health in the Roman period?
The government - raised taxes, the army - built roads, baths and sewers and communication - roads were spread across the entire Roman empire.
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What changed when the Romans left?
Loss of the Roman army, loss of one ruler or government and wars/chaos all came when the Romans left.
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What did this mean for Britain?
Britain began to regress, no focus was on public health so towns went into ill repair, books and theories were destroyed meaning there were no medical advances. However there was the birth and spread of christianity.
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What were the biggest public health problems for Britain during the Middle Ages?
The main problems were: lack of clean water, no means of removing sewage and remains of butchered animals on the streets attracted rats and mice.
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Why was London so smelly?
There was a lack of fresh water and also human and animal faeces were often found in the streets. This meant the country regressed.
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What was medical training like in the Middle Ages?
Doctors learnt through reading previous doctors books and working under a more experienced doctor. Some may complete training and by the 13th century would only have been allowed to set up a practice if they had done this.
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What were the hospitals like during the Middle Ages?
Many hospitals were set up by churches and so were run by monks and nuns, their aim was not to cure people but to care for them instead.
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What was the Case Study: Treatment of Leprosy?
During the Middle Ages leprosy was incurable and so Leper Houses were set up for them to stay. Those infected were expected to keep themselves away from other people and so had to warm people to move away. These houses provided care not cure.
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What were the positive influences of social change, the war, the government and religion during the Middle Ages?
The positives were: religious organisations cared for the sick and controlled the training of physicians along with preserving the ideas of Galen also the war brought knowledge from other countries.
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What were the negative influences of social change, the war, the government and religion during the Middle Ages?
The negatives were: public works decay because the government didn't care instead they focused on prevention of illness and they also stopped funding public health meaning there was no-one to keep up the cleanliness.
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What did people believe caused the Black Death in the Middle Ages?
The main idea was that God was causing people to be ill however other ideas included unusual positioning of planets, poisonous fumes, bad air or an imbalance of the 4 humours.
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How did people try to avoid catching the Black Death?
People would carry herbs and spices to smell along with lucky charms, smell bad smells, tidy rubbish from the streets, light a fire, keep the air moving in rooms and not letting people enter or leave towns.
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How did people treat the Black Death?
People would pray or hold lucky charms, eat cool things and take cold baths, perform bloodletting or purging, cut open buboes and holding bread against the buboes before burying them.
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Who were the 5 types of people responsible for treating the sick during the Middle Ages?
Trained physicians, apothecaries, barber surgeons, hospitals ad housewife physicians.
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Who were the 4 most influential people during the Renaissance period?
Paracelsus, Harvey, Pare and Vesalius.
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What did Paracelsus do?
Paracelsus believed that the bodies organs functioned by separating impure from pure, he discounted the theory of 4 humours and ushered in the era of new chemical medicine.
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What did Harvey do?
Harvey discovered that the heart pumped blood around the body and noticed how the valves helped. He was also the first person to suggest that mammals and humans reproduce via fertilisation.
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What did Pare do?
Pare was a military surgeon who looked at ligatures to stop blood flow and also introduced new ideas about birth and midwifery.
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What did Vesalius do?
Vesalius used dissections to show how the blood and nervous systems worked, he also realised that humans do not have the same anatomy as apes. In 1943 he published a book about dissections for people to use.
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What did people believe caused disease in the Renaissance period?
People still believed that Gods caused illness, as well as beliefs of bad air. This led to medical advancements as previous theories and methods did not work.
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What old ideas were still used for causes during the Renaissance period?
Herbal remedies, 4 Humours theory, folk remedies and the God/King.
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What new ideas were used for causes during the Renaissance period?
Transference and chemical cures.
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What ideas were used for prevention during the Renaissance period?
Ideas about changing weather/temperature, exercise/eating healthy, born healthy - be healthy and cleanliness of your house and self.
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What advances were made to medical training within the Renaissance period?
Doctors now had to complete 7 years of training, years at university and years working on specialist units in hospitals.
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Who was John Hunter?
John Hunter was known as the father of scientific surgery, he looked at the body and how it changed within pregnancy along with experiments for STD's. He turned his house into a museum and included a lot of specimens.
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What affected the training of doctors during the Renaissance period?
There was improved technology and knowledge of anatomy/physical bodies. Also there was a growing acceptance of dissections and importance of a scientific approach. Finally there was a introduction of medical schools and teaching hospitals.
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What was public health like in the Renaissance period?
Towns and cities were filthy due to rubbish, dead animals and human waste. Rivers were polluted as people washed themselves and their clothes within the water. Raw sewage was left in the streets and was increasing as the population increased.
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What were the toilets like during the Renaissance period?
Only the rich had a 'toilet' - wooden seat over a bucket, others had cesspits or buckets indoors. The richer owners of cesspits could pay people to empty them.
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What was the Great Plague - 1665?
The Great Plague was the big and was the last major one in England. London was overpopulated and within 7 months the plague had killed 100,000 people. When people were leaving it spread to other parts of the country.
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Why was the Great Plague spreading so quickly?
Lots of people arrived into London along with rats and this started the development of the plague. As it was hot and people were leaving there was availability for the disease to grow.
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What were the similarities and differences between the Black Death and the Great Plague?
The similarities were same causes, same symptoms and same treatments. The difference was who was responsible for stopping it spreading, Black Death - Individual people and Great Plague - Local Government.
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What did the government do to stop the Great Plague from spreading?
Closed theatres, dogs and cats were killed, burnt tar in the streets, carts collected bodies everyday, red cross on doors of infected for 28 days and days of fasting/prayers and staying inside.
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What were the main diseases that killed people during the Industrial period?
Cholera, Typhoid, Typhus, Small Pox, Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria and Tuberculosis.
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What did people believe caused disease during the Industrial period?
People were now less likely to believe in the 4 Humours or supernatural causes, whereas now they believe in miasma or spontaneous generation.
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What was housing like in the Industrial period?
The population of towns grew and so most families lived in only one room. This caused diseases to spread rapidly and also there was poor sanitation and limited access to water.
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What is the difference between inoculation and vaccination?
Inoculation - A way of giving a patient small doses of illness so that the body builds up immunity. Vaccination - A safe way of protecting the body and immune system against disease.
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Who was Edward Jenner?
He was a doctor from Gloucestershire who heard tales of how milk maids and farmers would not catch small pox if they had already had cowpox.
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What did Jenner do?
Jenner experimented on live humans by injecting people with cow pox doing this meant that if infected with small pox they would survive. However doctors were making money from inoculation and did not want to change to vaccination.
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What other opposition was there towards Jenner?
Scientists thought the idea was odd, the Church saw it as ungodly, people questioned the reliability of Jenner's evidence. The royal society refused to publish the work and vaccination was not free.
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What is the Germ Theory?
The Germ Theory is that microbes in the air is what causes decay.
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What helped Pasteur to discover the Germ Theory?
Microscopes were more powerful, he experimented and recorded his findings, he developed his idea amongst other scientists and he used chemical dyes to identify specific microbes under the microscope.
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What were the problems around the Germ Theory?
It was hard to know what each microbe is for each disease, it is hard to find cures and the progress was slow.
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What were the benefits for the Germ Theory from working in research teams?
Pasteur and Koch worked together within research teams which provided them with funding and the ability to carry out work and experiments.
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How did medical training change during the Industrial period?
In order to become a doctor and set up a practice people had to be accepted by the Royal College of Surgeons, Royal College of Physicists, Society of Apothecaries, go through examinations and be registered by the General Medical Council.
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Who was Florence Nightingale?
She was a nurse who went to work in the Crimean War. The work she did there massively reduced the death rates by 2/3, she formed a train school for nurses and received a medal from Queen Victoria. Within the war she promoted fresh air, fresh water...
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Who was Florence Nightingale - Continued?
Healthy food, towels/bandages/bedding changed everyday.
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What were the 2 types of hospitals used within the Industrial period?
Voluntary - Doctors would work for free and Cottage - Needed to pay for nurses/doctors. The rich would be treated at home and could pay into sick club to fund payments. The poor had to attend out-of-hours hospitals.
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What did Chadwick do to improve public health in the Industrial period?
He suggested that it would be cheaper if local taxes were used for hygiene and housing rather than for people to be supported in the workhouses. He wanted to provide clean water and when cholera out broke people began to use his ideas.
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What did Dr John Snow's investigation suggest during the Industrial period?
He showed on a map that there was a clear connection of deaths around the water pump on Broad Street. This showed the link of dirty water and cholera, after the water was disconnected the number of deaths fell massively.
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How did technology help to improve public health within the Industrial period?
The improvements within technology produced new machinery for farms and factories along with rail and canal systems. Now machines could do jobs people had previously been required to do. Also the introduction of sewage systems/clean water helped.
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What were the 4 main developments in the fight against disease?
Pasteurs Germ Theory, Koch identified different microbes, prevention was developed and applied to more diseases and government intervened - encouraged then insisted all children were vaccinated.
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What was the First Magic Bullet found in the present day?
The First Magic Bullet was found by developing Koch's work and noticing injections could cure disease, different trials were done to try and find a way of producing something that didn't harm the body. In 1909 a Japanese doctor noticed the 606th..
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What was the First Magic Bullet found in the present day - Continued?
Compound which had been dismissed was effective and it became know a Salvarsan 606.
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What was the Second Magic Bullet found in the present day?
In 1932 the Second Magic Bullet was found it was effective against some cases of blood poisoning. these methods meant that other drugs could be developed for the diseases. This was massively beneficial because previously people wold have died.
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Who was Alexander Fleming?
Fleming discovered penicillin when he was doing an experiment and bacteria which he was growing was being attacked by an unknown mould. He experimented on it and noticed it could be used as an antibiotic. However he was unable to get funding.
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Who were Howard Florey and Ernst Chain?
Florey and Chain used research teams to advance Flemings ideas. When the USA entered the war they managed to persuade the American government to fund the mass production of penicillin.
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Who were Francis Crick and James Watson?
They worked together to investigate the structure of DNA, this lead to skin grafts, better vaccines, research into faulty genes, better understanding of hereditary diseases and stem cells to replace faulty cells.
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Who was Karl Landsteiner?
He realised that there are 4 different blood groups and that transfusions were only successful if the donor and receivers blood matched. This meant more people could survive. However blood could not be stored creating a problem.
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What improvements were made to technology in the present day?
X-rays could diagnose broken bones, nuclear medicine could track illnesses, dialysis machines could help with kidney problems, microscopes could look at bacteria and pacemakers could help with heart problems.
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How were people cared for in the present day?
Access and standard of health care massively improved more hospitals and doctors practices were set up for the many people who were becoming medically trained. The government had a large involvement setting up acts and laws.
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Who were Charles Booth and Seebohm Rowntree?
They showed that power people could not afford housing and food, when the liberal government came to power the National Insurance Act said that people to contribute weekly in return for free medicine and treatment. Giving people access to health care
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