MEST 3 - New and Digital Media

Democratic Media
We have a choice in what gets coverage
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Everything is as bad as it could possibly be
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Dystopian theorist
Habermas (1991)
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Habermas' theory
Belief that most media outlets, even new media, produce similar sorts of representations that focus primarily on celebrities and trivia
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Characteristic of an ideal perfect state or place
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Utopian theorist
Del Sola Poole (1997)
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Del Sola Poole's theory
New media provides individual citizens with the ability to produce and publicise media texts themselves, which facilitates the growth of different media voices and representations
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When was the internet invented?
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When was the world wide web born?
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Inventor of the internet
Tim Berners Lee
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Henry Jenkins
Convergence Culture
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Media Convergence
Every story being told, every brand being sold and every media consumer being courted across differing media platforms
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Participatory Culture
Media consumers who choose to interact with officials rather than take what they distribute
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Collective intelligence
Individuals who join forces to let their opinions known on differing types of media ('an alternative source of of media power')
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User Generated Content
Any form of media created by users of an online system/service often made available via social media websites
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Generally famous people who introduce us to new and interesting things and bring them to a larger audience
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Community Participation
This has now become part of the phenomenon, either by spreading it or by doing something new with it. We don't just enjoy media now, we participate
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When there is over 2 days worth of video being uploaded every minute, only unique and unexpected content can stand out
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Marshall McLuhan (1964)
Argued that developments in technology have shrunk the world into a 'global village'
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Cultural Imperialism
Argues that the new media is still dominated by wealthy and powerful Western organisations that communicate their news and the values around the world
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The effect of globalisation
Globalisation argues that there is a breaking down and merging down of different nations's cultures and values
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Traditional News Products
BBC News - Regional/local news and national news. Newspapers - Metro, Guardian, Independent (Moved online) Telegraph, The Sun, The Daily Mail
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Media Oligopoly
When a few firms dominate a market
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What does it mean by the news is constructed?
Put together into a media product, e.g a TV news programme that targets a specific audience
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How does the new media mediate?
It comes between an actual event and the audience, e.g a football match is constructed into a 30-second TV news report on the game
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What does the media do to construct the news?
Chooses which events to cover and puts together a news package, carefully selecting the images, language and who will be interviewed. Encouraging the audience to read it in a particular way
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What are the Daily Mail's cultural and political values?
Right wing, Pro-conservatives, Anti-youth, Sensationalists, Against refugees + immigrants, Anti NHS, Moral panics
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What are the Guardian's cultural and political values?
Left wing, Pro-labour, "Hard news", Perceived as unbias, Critical of Tory policies
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Tony Harcup
Argued that news media have a set of values that influence what is newsworthy, what will appear in the news and what will be shown to be the most important
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Leadership/dominance, especially by one state or social group over others
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Which main institution is seen to be neutral?
BBC -Public broadcasting service - TV licence
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What have the BBC said they are going to do?
Inform, educate and entertain
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More choice and control goes against what?
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Citizen Journalism
Ordinary people as well as professional journalists are creating the news
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Media Landscape
What makes up the media, looks like/state of media
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Clay Shirky
How new digital media is changing the landscape
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When do the tools get socially interesting?
When everyone begins to take them for granted and when technology gets boring
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What are the 4 periods where media has changed enough to qualify for the label revolution?
1. Printing Press. 2. Two way communication - telephone. 3. Recorded media, other than print - physical products: Music, film, photos. 4. Broadcast Media - Radio and television: Signals sent through the air
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What have those 4 periods given us? (Clay Shirky)
1 to 1 Pattern - Phone. 1 to Many Pattern - Magazines, Books, TV, Radio. Many to Many Pattern - Internet
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What is the second big change?
All media digitalised - Internet motive. Not just information - People talk to others
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What is the third big change?
Members of former audience can be a producer, instead of a consumer. Technology allows us to do both
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What is the crazy change in media landscape?
No longer disconnected - Audience can talk directly to each other
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What do audiences now like doing?
Having a say, have their voices heard and so there is increased interaction with news sources
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Gramsci's hegemony theory (1971)
Argued that the media plays an important role in communicating hegemonic values, encouraging people to agree with the dominant ideology, the values that are in the interests of those in power
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Raymond Williams (1977)
Argued that hegemony continually has to be renewed, recreated, defended and modified, It is also continually resisted, limited, altered, challenged by pressure not at all its own
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What could make the media more democratic?
More people are involved in news gathering and production and in online debates and discussions; making the media and society more democratic because more people are involved
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What does the increased amount of news sources mean?
There is potentially a wider range of opinions and values
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Why is media regulated?
As a result of concerns about the potential power it has to influence audiences
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Protection of the minority perspective
Argues for control of the media content to protect the rights of individuals , minority groups and those who may be harmed by the media
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Freedom of Speech
Argues that even if at time harm is done by material, it is better than allowing government to censor it
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Why has BBC Three moved online?
To save money - were going to cut it but they thought the target audience would still engage with it
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Everything is as bad as it could possibly be



Card 3


Habermas (1991)


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Belief that most media outlets, even new media, produce similar sorts of representations that focus primarily on celebrities and trivia


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Characteristic of an ideal perfect state or place


Preview of the back of card 5
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