Nazi Germany

What reforms did the Kaiser implement in oct 198 before his abdication, in order to end democracy?
Appointed Prince Max as Chancellor,put all forces under gov control = designed to save him from humiliation
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What was Wilsons 14 points 1918?
14 ways of how to deal with the aftermath of the war e.g creation of the LON to maintain peace and Germany return Alase Lorraine to France.
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what was the Peace note with USA?
Prince Max asks for an armistice , wilson didnt reply quckily becuase he wa suspicious. Agreed if the kaiser abdicates and Germany becomes a democracy
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what was the November revolution 1918?
news of an armistcie was shattering to the Germans, so sailors lost respect and mutined. there was unrest in Kiely naval base- wanted the kaisers abdication in 24hrs otherwise they will withdraw support.
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When and how was the Kaiser abdicated?
9th of Novemeber 1918, released by Prince Max on his behalf
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what was the weimar consitution 1919?
Coalition of the SPD ( largest) , the centre party and German democratic party- led by Ebert
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What was Article 48?
President could rule by decree in emergencies, an override the reichstag
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How many times did Ebert use Article 48?
138 times
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What was proportional representation?
small parties gain representation in the reichsatg, all parties have representation according to how many votes they got= weakened the system and created divisions because no party ever had majority.
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What was the army like under the new constitution?
Free from control. had independance
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what was the nature of the judiciary/ article 58?
Judges remain from kaisers Reich, were bias because majority of judges were anti-democratic so would punish LW but be lenient to RW
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why did Ebert struggle for power and lack legitimacy ?
Although he was leader of the largest party ( SPD) he still wasnt the majority. His power didnt extend past Berlin, so couldn't control violence from ex soldiers and army etc
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what was eberts beliefs?
wanted revoltionary change, with new reforms and quickly establish a constitution.
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What was his pressures from the left?
wanted exteme radical change, workers/ soldiers councils formed
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what was the pessure from the army and how was it neutralised?
Most of the army were aristocrats and supported the Kaiser and Ebert needed their support for survival of his gov. The Ebert-Groner pact was formed where the army will supports Ebert if he prevents a communist revolution
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what was the Treaty of Versailles and when was it?
1919-agreement to stop fighting, Germany had 7 days to accept it and had to be signed by all powers y the 28th of June
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What was the guilt for war?
Section 231- Germany had to accept all responsibility for war and pay £6.6 billion
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what were the territorial losses?
Germany lost 13% of its territory which resulted in them losing 75% of their iron ore and 26% of their coal m= LT cause of occupation of the Ruhr
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What were the disarmament ?
Army limited to 100,000 and conscription banned. Forbidden to use tanks, submarines etc and navy was limited to 15,000
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what were the reaction sot this from abroad?
Francce- felt it wasnt harsh enough, wanted to seek revenge. Britain- fairly satisfied but felt they shouldn't be so weak because he wanted good trading. USA- negative reaction, saw french and uk as greedy, made separate peace with Germany 1921
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what the reaction form the right?
Ludendorff spread the 'stab in the bck' , resented the republic and say it as an act of betrayal from the government
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what happened to prices after the war?
it quadrupled 1919-20
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what was the economic impact?
Gold reserves were inadequate for rep payments , they couldn't pay their coal debt= print more money
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What was the Franco-Belgian occupation of the Ruhr 1923?
Behind coal payments to France 1922. so France and Belgian send 60,000 to occupy the Ruhr - numbers increased to 100,000
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what did germnay do which worsened the situation/
ordered the policy of passive resistance , where they paid workers to strike. they also sabotaged the bridges and railways in the Ruhr to stop imports leaving Germany.
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what was the economic effects of the occupation 1923
led to the cost of 2x annual reparations. output of coal feel by 1/5 since before the occupation.
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What was the hyperinflation crisis 1923?
Money became worthless and prices soared, food ran short and their was increase in crime and violence such as theft
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what reforms worsened the effect if hyperinflation because it led to more money being spent?
social welfare reforms- for people who needed support after the war e.g 1919- state welfare act extended to wives, daughters and disabled
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who were some of the winners of the crisis?
those who sold things on the black market, those who owed fixed debts and eople who lived in the country side
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who were the losers of the crisis?
pensioners who had fixed incomes, landlords who were paid fixed rent, the sick becuase medical bills became really expensive and unskilled workers because their wages didn't kept up with the rising prices
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what was the problems of the 1919 coalition under Ebert?
prolifiertaion meant it was very divided with disagreements e.g schiedemann's cabinet resigned. there were 10 coalitions 1919-23
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What was the Spartacus league 1919?
led by karl and rosa. A staged uprising in Berlin to overthrow Ebert;s government and replace it with a communist regime
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what was the outcome?
poorly prepared, poorly supported. was put down in a weal by Groene'rs Friekorps ( lasted a week)
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what was the Kapp Putsch 1920?
comanding general of freikorps refused to disband one of the two units to follow the Treaty.. Marched his troops in protest and supported by Wolfgang Kapp( Rw)
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what was the outcome?
failed to get widespread support, so collapsed in 4 days
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how many political assassination's were there and how many from each side?
there was 376 assassinations, 354 were RW and 22 LW
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What happened to Ezberger 1921?
was assassinated for signing the treaty = betrayal
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What happened to Rathenu 1922
Jewish foreign minister who signed the armistice
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Whatw as the 1922 law to protect the republic from organisation consul?
1922 Law for protection of the Republic
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What was the Beer Hall Putsch 1923?
Hitler and his SA surrounded a meeting at Beer Hall and announced a revolution becuase he needed support of Lossow and local army commanders
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What was the outcome?
support evaporated overnight, Hitler was arrested when he marched through Munich = realised he needed to take a peaceful approach
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What did Stresseman do to the currency in 1924?
Replaced the worthless Riechmark with a new Rentenmark
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How did Sresseman balance the budget?
300,000 civil serviceman lost their jobs, all weak companies crumbled e.g 6000 companies bankrupt by 1924
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What was the 1924 Dawes Plan?
Loan from USA of 800 million, amount payed each year reduced till 1924 and the French left the Ruhr once Germany agreeed
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What industry recovery was there from the 1924 Dawes plan?
New production techniques which replaced equipment and machinery, advancement in the chemical industry and wages increased. 206,000 homes built in 1926
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how much did the wages rise of those backed by trade unions 1927-8
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what did the state agree to pay in 1928?
a small wage increase paid by state because employers refused
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how much did strikes fall by from 1924 to 1930
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what was the limits of recovery that effected employment?
by 1926 unemployment reached 3 million due to cuts and reducing workforces. For example mining companies reduced workforce by 192,000 from 1922- 29
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what was the variations of the economic recovery?
The economic recovery didnt beneifit everyone. White collar workers ( office) didint get wage rises, but blue collar workers did = same level wages or exceeded them
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was there an agricultural benefit for farmers?
there was an agricultural depression which kept food prices low, alll the farmers that hoarded money lost it in the inflation.
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how did government make the situation worse for farmers?
1923 made it easier for them to get loans which actually worsened the situation because they couldn't pay them back and got bankrupt
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what was the global grain surplus 1925- 26?
They had too much grain
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What was agricultural production?
3/4 of previous levels?
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what was the Young plan 1929?
Stresseman agreeded the repaeration issue should be considered by buisnessman young. which developed the Young plan where Germany continued paying reperations until 1988 but the bill was reduced to £1.8 instead of £6.6 billion
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How did nationalist respomd to the plan?
launched a campaign against the plan. drew up 'The Freedom Law' where they demanded a referendum which refused war guilt= got 13.8% of electorate
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what did the new social welfare reforms support?
supported 800,000 disabled veterans and 90,000 war orphans
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what was the means test ?
Checked if claimants were cheating the system, which kept expenditure down.
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what happened to living standards 1924-28?
Was varied for certain groups: Improved for those in unions, those who lost savings in hyperinflation didn't regain a comfortable lifestyle. = was mainly a golden age in Berlin and for various groups.
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What was the myth of the women?
That 36% of the workforce were women 1925 and that they had wider sexual freedom and there was a rise in the number of abortions.
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what was the reality of this?
demobalisation laws after the war made women give up their jbs for men and they were attacked as ' double earners' . by 1930 there was 10-12,000 a deaths a year from abortions becuase women were getting them illegally because they were an offence.
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was there a vafiation for golden age for women?
yes- a golden age fr young, single women in Berlin and cities.
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What were Gymnasium schools?
Selective elite schools, but open to everyone to take the exam for entrance. However this was actually more beneficial for upper class because working class couldn't afford tutors to pass the exams
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What was actually the reality for youths?
1925- 26, 17% of those who were unemployed were youths age 14-21, worsened by a baby boom in the 1900's= joined gangs and cliques mainly in cities such as Hamburg
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what was the lifestyle for Jews 1924-28?
although they were only 1% of the popuation they were very influential had had high significance in lifestyle contributions. 80% were well educated and felt assimilated.
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what were their inputs in industry and politics?
Ratheau- foreign minister. owned 50% of private banks ( declined to 20% 1920), owned 50% of cloth trade firms and 50% of Berlins doctors were Jewish
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What was the extent of assimilation?
they wished to assimilate , many gave up Judaism for Christianity but were not completely accepted by Germans and they were starting it be blamed for issues such as hyperinflation
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What was the Barmat Scandel 1925?
barmat brothers were blamed and sentence to jail for bribing public officials to obtain loans from Russia = start of Anti-Sematic attacks
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What developments were there in nightclubs 1924-28?
More sexual freedom, homosexuals displayed seuality in clubs etc, american Jazz became prominent an comedians attacked politicians
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What cultural developments were there 1924-28
Expressionist art with emotionand meaning rather than reality, more abstract. Music was less traditional - became soft and atonal. Novels adopted free form writing and focused on expressionism
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art developments continued
Foudning of the Bauhaus schoolwhich developed artitechute techniques. film became important but it was exploited by propaganda. Dramatists attacked capitalism and there was circulation of LW satire which made middle class villains and WC as Heros
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What was the instability of the coalitions 1923-28?
There was 7 coalitionsin this period, only 6/23 cabinets had majority support. The governemnet was unstable and thgere was often disputes. For example in 1926 over the flag colour which resulted in the collapse of gov
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When was Hindenburg elected and what was he positives of his election
1925- he had a military past, which reassured RW and preventing them from rising up and rebelling
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What were the negatives of his election?
He favoured RW which is stepping away from democracy . He used Article 48 becuase he was impatient= presidential decree in the hands of someone who didn't want democracy.
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What were attitudes to the republic?
elites- Hostile and anti-democratic. Believed Hindenburg would create a authoritarian gov. Middle class- diverse views, those lower MC had resentment for republic. Working class- valued democratic freedoms and benefits
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What was Stresseman's aims with the policy of fulfillment?
co-operate with the big 3 with reperations in hopes it will shoe they are peaceful and may allow revisions
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what was the Locarno Pact 1925?
A meeting with Western powers to resolve tensions over boarders
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What was Wilsons 14 points 1918?


14 ways of how to deal with the aftermath of the war e.g creation of the LON to maintain peace and Germany return Alase Lorraine to France.

Card 3


what was the Peace note with USA?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what was the November revolution 1918?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


When and how was the Kaiser abdicated?


Preview of the front of card 5
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