non communicable diseases

  • Created by: rxbyw
  • Created on: 10-02-19 15:56
ways a valve can be faulty
leaky, doesnt open it properly
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suggest when artificial hearts would be used
to keep a person alive while waiting for a donor heart to be found/to help the person recover by allowing their heart to rest and heal
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why is it difficult to prove a ncd is caused by a particular factor?
time lag involved between risk factor and onset of NCD, many factors involved make it difficult to prove a casual mechanism, some risk factors are not capable of directly causing a disease but are related to another risk factor eg lack of exercise
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what is cardiovascular disease?
disease to do with the heart or blood vessels
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what causes coronary heart disease?
when arteries that supply the blood to the heart muscle get blocked by fatty deposits building up which restricts blood flow causing a lack of oxygen to the heart muscle leading to a heart attack
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what are stents?
wire mesh tubes that are inserted inside arteries to widen them
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what do stents make sure of?
that blood can pass through to the heart muscle and keep persons heart beating
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advantages of stents?
lowers risk of heart attack, effective for long time, recovery time from surgery is quick
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disadvantages of stents?
risk of complications while surgery, risk of infection from surgery, risk of thrombosis near stent
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what are statins?
drugs that reduce the amount of 'bad cholesterol' in blood stream
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statins slow down the rate of what?
the rate of fatty deposits forming
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advantages of statins?
reduce the risk of strokes, chd and heart attacks,increase amount of 'good cholesterol',prevent other diseases
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disadvantages of statins?
must be taken regularly which can be forgotten, negative side effects, it isnt instant
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what are artificial hearts?
mechanical devices that pump blood for a person whos own heart has failed, a temporary fix
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advantages of artificial heart?
less likely to be rejected by the body's immune system because theyre made from metals and plastics
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disadvantages of artificial heart?
surgery can lead to bleeding and infection, the electrical motor could fail, blood clots can form leading to strokes because blood doesnt flow as smoothly, patient has to take drugs meaning blood cant normally clot to heal wounds
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valves in hearts can be damaged by....?
heart attacks, infection or old age
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damage of the valve can lead to
the valve tissue to stiffen not opening properly or to be leaky allowing blood to flow both directions in the heart so blood doesnt circulate as normal
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what are biological valves?
valves from another mammal or human
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what are artificial valves?
man made valves
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when is artificial blood used?
used when someone has lost a lot of blood and is needed to replace the lost volume of blood
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what does artificial blood give the patient time for?
enough time to produce new blood cells
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what is a risk factor?
an even that is linked to an increase in likelihood that a person will develop a certain disease during their lifetime
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what can risk factors be?
lifestyle aspects, the presence of certain substances in the environment or the body
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what impacts can risk factors have?
local national and global
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in developed countries ncds are more common as...
people have higher income so they can buy high fat foods
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in deprived areas people are more likely to
smoke have poor diet and not exercise so cardiovascular disease obesity and type 2 diabetes is higher in those areas
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what affects the local incidence of disease?
your individual choices
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smoking has been proven to directly cause...
cardiovascular disease, lung disease and lung cancer.
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obesity can directly cause...
type 2 diabetes by making body less sensitive to insulin meaning it struggles to control the concentration of glucose in the blood
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too much alcohol can cause
liver disease and the brain losing volume/function
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smoking while pregnant means...
baby receives less oxygen causing it health problems
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drinking alcohol while pregnant means
it will damage the babys cells affecting its development
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cancer can be caused by
exposure to certain substances or radiation
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correlation doesnt always equal...?
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human costs of ncd?
lots of people die from ncds globally, people with ncd have a lower quality of life
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financial cost of ncd?
cost of research/treatments is large, people may have to adapt/move homes for person with ncd, reduction in number of people able to work affects a countrys economy
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what causes cancer tumours?
the uncontrolled cell growth and division
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what are benign tumours?
tumours that stay in one place,are not cancerous
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what are malignant tumours?
tumours that spread to neighbouring healthy tissues, cancerous
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how do malignant tumours spread?
cells can break off and travel in the bloodstream to form secondary tumours
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lifestyle risk factors for cancer
smoking,obesity,uv exposure+viral infection
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genetic risk factors mean that
you can inherit faulty genes that make you susceptible to cancer
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give 2 features of a risk factor with a proven casual mechanism
scientists can show that it is a cause of the disease,known how this works/cells that have changed so they have uncontrolled growth
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


suggest when artificial hearts would be used


to keep a person alive while waiting for a donor heart to be found/to help the person recover by allowing their heart to rest and heal

Card 3


why is it difficult to prove a ncd is caused by a particular factor?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is cardiovascular disease?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what causes coronary heart disease?


Preview of the front of card 5
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