P1 Physics

  • Created by: wafflypig
  • Created on: 02-04-16 11:22
What is wave amplitude?
The height from the axis to peak/axis to trough
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What is wavelength?
The distance from one peak to the next
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What is a transverse wave?
The vibrations travel at 90 degrees to the direction of travel of the wave
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What is a longitudinal wave?
The vibrations travel along in the same direction as the way the way is travelling
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Give 2 examples of a transverse wave
Visible light, X-rays, S-waves and any other EM wave
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What is the geocentric model?
The old theory that earth is the center of the solar system and everything orbits around earth
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What is the heliocentric model?
The now accepted theory that the sun is the center of the solar system and everything orbits the sun
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Who first queried the geocentric model?
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How did Gallileo provide evidence to disprove the geocentric model?
He watched 3 "stars" for week. For the first three days the "stars" moved around Jupiter. This means they were moons orbiting Jupiter - proving not everything orbits earth. After a week a fourth appeared.
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What kind of telescope did Galileo use?
A refracting telescope
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In what shape do planets orbit the sun?
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What is a real image?
Where light comes together to form a physical image on a screen
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What is a virtual image?
When rays are diverging so the light looks like it's coming from a different place
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What image is produced when you look in a mirror?
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What image is produced when you look through a magnifying glass?
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When does light change direction in refraction?
When it enters a medium with a different density at an angle other than the normal.
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What is refraction?
When light changes speed, and usually direction when entering a medium with a different density
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What is reflection?
When light rays hit a different medium and some of its energy is bounced back (reflected)
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Angle of incidence =....
Angle of reflection
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What is wave frequency?
The number of complete waves passing a point per second - measured in Hertz (Hz)
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What are converging used for?
To focus light (and correct long-sightedness)
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What is focal length?
The distance between the center of the lens and its focal point
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What is image distance?
The distance between the center of the lens and the image produced on the screen
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What is object distance?
The distance between the center of the lens and the object that light is reflecting off
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What is a focal point?
The point at which all the light rays that were travelling parallel to the optical axis come together
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Where is the optical axis?
Horizontally through the center of the lens
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How would you find the focal length of a lens?
Put an object on one side of the lens, and move the lens back and forth until a clear image is produced on the screen. Measure the distance between the lens and screen (focal length).
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How many lenses does a refracting telescope use?
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What do reflecting telescopes use?
2 mirrors and converging eyepiece lens
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Who discovered ultraviolet radiation?
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Who discovered infrared radiation?
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How did Ritter discover ultraviolet radiation?
By noticing it took the longest time for silver chloride to go from white to black just past violet on the spectrum
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How did Herschel discover infrared radiation?
He noticed that the part of the spectrum with the highest temperature was just past red
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What is the EM spectrum in order?
Radio, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, xray, gamma
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True or false, all EM waves are transverse and travel at the same speed in a vacuum
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What decreases as you move from left to right on the EM spectrum?
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What 2 things increase as you from left to right on the EM spectrum?
Danger and frequency
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What do the properties of EM waves depend on?
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What are the dangers of microwaves?
Heat human body cells
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What are the dangers of infrared radiation?
Skin burns
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What are the dangers of UV radiation?
Skin cancer and eye damage
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What are the dangers of Xrays/Gamma rays?
Cell mutations and cancer
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True or false, the higher the frequency, the higher the danger
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Give a use of radio waves
Communication (satellites/radio)
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Give a use of microwaves
Satellite communication and mobile phones. Can be used to heat food at a different wavelength
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What is the ionosphere?
The uppermost, charged layer of earth's atmosphere
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Give 3 uses of infrared radiation
Thermal imaging/night vision/transmit data/cooking/remote controls/security systems
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How do optical fibers transmit data?
The infrared waves are repeatedly reflected off the inner walls of the wire over a long distance
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Give a use of visible light
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Give a use for UV radiation
Detect forged bank notes by looking at fluorescence
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Give a use of X rays
Look inside the body/objects (eg in a hospital or airport)
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What is radiotherapy?
The treatment of cancer using gamma rays
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Give 2 uses of gamma rays
Sterilising food and surgical equipment/treating cancer
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What are the three types of ionising radiation?
Alpha, beta and gamma
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How do gamma rays lead to cancer?
The exposure causes ionisation of the cells randomly which caused cancer
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How can we see planets with the naked eye?
They reflect light from the sun into our eyes
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What is 1 lightyear?
The distance light travels in a vacuum in one year
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What is a vacuum?
An area with no air in it
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What galaxy are we in?
Milky Way
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What is a galaxy?
A collection of billions of stars
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What is the Universe?
A collection of billions of galaxies
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What is SETI?
Search for ExtraTerrestrial Life
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How does SETI do what it does?
Looks for meaningful signals in the noise of the radio waves in space
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Give 2 ways the surface of a planet can be analysed
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Why is it better to have a telescope in space?
Atmosphere distorts images and light pollution from earth
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Give an example of a telescope in space
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What are the problems with having space telescopes?
Expensive and hard to maintain
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What is a spectrometer?
A tool used to analyse light given out by stars
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Why do absorption lines happen?
Because the light at those wavelengths has been absorbed by specific elements
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Give a use of a spectrometer
To prove red shift
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What is a nebula?
Clouds of dust and gas, the first stage in the life cycle of a star
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What causes a nebula to come together and form a solid block?
Gravity. The gravitational energy is transferred to thermal energy
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What is a main sequence star?
The main part of a star's life where thermonuclear fusion happens and helium nuclei are produced. This is a long stable period
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What happens to small stars?
They go to a planetary nebula to a white dwarf
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What happens to big stars?
Supernova, neutron star(or black hole)
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What is a planetary nebula?
When a main sequence star ejects its outer layer of dust and gases
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What is a white dwarf?
A hot, dense solid core
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What is a supernova?
When so much fusion happens that the main sequence star explodes
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What is a neutron star?
A very, very dense solid core
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Give three pieces of evidence that support the Big Bang Theory
CMBR, red shift
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What is the CMBR?
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is left over radiation from the big bang
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What is red shift?
The change in observed wavelength due to galaxies moving away from each other, visible in spectral absorption lines
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How long ago was the big bang?
13.7 billion years ago
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What is ultrasound?
Sound with frequency over 20,000Hz
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What is infrasound?
Sound with frequencies under 20Hz
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What is 1Hz
1 wave passing a point per second
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Give 2 uses of ultrasound
Sonar, pre-natal scanning
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Give a use of infrasound
Animal communication
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How does sonar work?
A computer measures the time between an ultrasound wave leaving the ship and returning (reflected from the media with a different density)
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Why is it not a good idea to use X rays for prenatal scanning?
X rays cause could cause cell mutations in the foetus which might kill it
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Speed = .....
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Give the structure of earth from inside to out
Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
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Give the states of each part of Earth's structure
Inner core = solid, outer core = liquid mantle = very viscous liquid, crust = solid
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Give the properties of an S wave
Transverse, travel slower than P waves, only travel through solids
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Give the properties of a P wave
Longitudinal, travel fast, do less damage, get there before S waves, travel through solids and liquids
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How can you calculate the epicenter of an earthquake using a seismograph?
Find the time difference between the 2 tremors (P and S wave). Use the time difference as a radius for three circles on a map. The point where all 3 circles cross is the epicentre
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Why can't you just use 2 circles to find the epicenter?
They will cross at 2 places
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Where do you plot the center of the circles?
At each seismometer
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What is current?
The rate of flow of charge around an electrical circuit
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What is voltage?
An electrical pressure that makes current flow
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Even though electrons are negatively charged, we still say current flows from +ve to -ve because we thought this long ago: true or false
True. They actually flow from -ve to +ve
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What is electrical power?
The energy transferred per second
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What is a CRO?
Measures AC and DC current
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What is DC current?
Direct Current that continually flows in one direction only
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What is AC current?
Alternating Current constantly changes direction
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What type of current do batteries supply?
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How can you induce a voltage?
Move a magnet inside a metal coil
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What 4 factors affect the size of the voltage and current induced with a magnet in a coil?
Strength of the magnet, number of turns in the coil, area of the coil and speed of the movement
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Give 3 examples of non-renewable energy sources
Coal, nuclear fuels, oil, gases
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What are the 3 fossil fuels?
Coal, oil and natural gas
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What are 3 things environmentally problematic when it comes to non-renewable energy sources?
Release of CO2 (=greenhouse effect=global warming). Mining ruins the landscape. Burning coal causes acid rain by releasing SO2. Nuclear power has risk of disaster. Dangerous nuclear waste. Oil spills
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What is a renewable energy source?
An energy source that will never run out
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How does a hydroelectric dam work?
Rainwater is let through a dam, turning a turbine (GPE to KE) to spin a magnet in a generator
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What are the advantages and disadvantages?
Habitats lost but produces lots of electricity
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Give 2 other ways water can be used to generate electricty
Wave power, tidal barrages
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Give 3 other ways electricity can be generated
Wind power, geothermal and solar
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Give 4 things to consider when setting up a power station
Location/Running costs/Set-up time/Set-up costs/Reliability/Environment
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True or false, there are less coils on a step-up transformer?
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Why is it important for voltage to be stepped up?
So less is wasted as heat energy as it is transferred around the national grid. This increases efficiency
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Give 2 issues with transmitting this much energy in the National Grid
Power losses are still high (even with transformers), high voltage is a risk to humans (fly a kite into it = electrocution), living near a power line may cause leukemia.
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What is the purpose of a step down transformer?
It reduces to the voltage to a safe level for use in homes (240V)
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Give 4 ways you can save money on energy bills
Loft insulation, cavity wall insulation, thick curtains, foil behind radiators, double glazing and hot water tank jacket
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What are the 10 types of energy?
Kinetic, magnetic, light, sound, thermal, nuclear, chemical, GPE, elastic potential, electrical
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What does conservation of energy say?
Energy can never be created nor destroyed - only transferred
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What kind of energy do batteries use?
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What is efficiency?
The proportion of energy input that is transferred into useful energy
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Which energy on the EM spectrum is mostly absorbed by the atmosphere?
Infrared (and some ultraviolet)
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Give 2 energies on the EM spectrum that are not absorbed by the atmosphere
Visible light (well, 10% is absorbed). Microwaves
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Why is it a good idea to paint the container that a motor is in black?
It emits more heat energy after it has been absorbed. This means the motor will not overheat.
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What is Leslie's Cube?
Has alternating sides made of shiny and dark material. Thermometer is placed just by each side. The ones near the black sides will show temperature increase fastest and greatest.
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Which type of current do step-up and step-down transformers transform?
AC only.
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Which has more primary windings, step-up or step-down transformer?
Step-down transformer
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What does a step-up transformer do to voltage?
Change it from primary to secondary voltage. The step-down transformer does the opposite.
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Give 3 things that should be considered when setting up a new power plant
Environment (will it destroy habitats, scenery etc?). Reliability (will it work?). Set-up costs (do you have the money?). Set-up time (Gas is quick). Running costs (do you have the money for maintence + fuel?). Location issues (pop dens=Bopahl)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is wavelength?


The distance from one peak to the next

Card 3


What is a transverse wave?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is a longitudinal wave?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Give 2 examples of a transverse wave


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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