Paper 2

Name examples of sedimentary rocks?
Clay, Chalk, Limestone
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Name examples of metamorphic rocks?
Shale into slate
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Name examples of igneous rocks?
Granite, pumice, basalt
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What is glaciation?
The ice pressed down on the landscape and eroded it in distinctive ways
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How has agriculture impacted the UK's landscape?
Trees have been cleared to make way for agriculture. Different types of farming are suited to different types of landscapes eg. sheep farming in upland areas.
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How has forestry impacted the UK's landscape?
Forestry is planting, managing and caring for forests for different purposes eg nature conservation, landscaping, timber production or recreation.
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Name features of soft rocks?
Easily eroded, Cliffs will be less rugged and steep, Landscapes include bays
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Name features of hard rocks?
Resistant to erosion Cliffs will be high, Steep and rugged, Landscapes include wave cut platforms, headlands and caves.
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What is a concordant coastline?
Made up of the same rock type, parallel to the sea.
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What is a discordant coastline?
The rock type alternates in layers perpendicular to the sea, forming headlands and bays.
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What are joints?
Small cracks in rocks
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What are faults?
Large cracks in rocks
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Name factors of erosion?
Geologic structure, waves, current, ground water levels (saturated cliffs)
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Name features of constructive waves?
Build up the beach, large swash, lower and longer wavelength
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Name features of destructive waves?
Erode the coastline, strong backwash, taller and shorter wavelength
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What is hydraulic action?
Waves also compress air in cracks in the rock, forcing them apart, weakening the rock.
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What is abrasion?
Breaking waves throw sand and pebbles against the coast.
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What is attrition?
Rocks and pebbles rub together and break down into smaller pieces.
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What is solution? (Erosion)
Chemical action by seawater on rocks, especially limewater.
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How is climate change increasing the risk of flooding?
As atmospheric temperatures rise, it is likely that storm frequency and strength will increase causing the height of waves to increase. Increasing rainfall levels also increase weathering and mass movement.
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What is slumping? (Coastal Processes)
Happens when the rock is saturated with water and slides down a slip plane.
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What is sliding?
Happens when loosened rocks suddenly tumble down the slope.
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What is coastal retreat?
The coastline moves further inland.
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What is traction?
Large boulders are rolled along the seabed by waves.
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What is saltation?
Smaller stones are bounced along the sea bed.
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What is suspension?
Sand and small particles are carried along in the flow.
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What is solution? (Transportation)
Some minerals are dissolved in sea water and carried along in the flow.
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How are spits formed?
Are narrow projections of sand or shingle that are attached to the land at one end. They are formed by longshore drift.
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How are bars formed?
Formed by longshore drift depositing material away from the coast. Bars grow right across the bay cutting off the water to form a lagoon.
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What is soil creep?
Particles of soil slowly move down the sides of valleys under the influence of gravity.
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What is slumping? (River Processes)
Valley sides are eroded by the river making the sides steeper and increasing the downward movement of material.
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What is the lag time?
The difference in time between the peak of the rainstorm and the peak of the river discharge
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What does the bar graph show on a storm hydrograph?
The bar graph shows the amount of rainfall (mm)
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What does the line graph show on a storm hydrograph?
The line graph shows the amount of discharge (m3/s)
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What is the site?
The land on which the settlement was constructed
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What is the situation?
The position of the settlement in relation to its surroundings.
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What is conurbation?
When a city has expanded outwards and absorbed smaller settlements that used to be separate.
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What is the urban core?
The central part of a conurbation.
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What is the urban fringe?
The settlements around the edge of the urban core – usually have a low density.
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What is population density?
The number of people per square kilometre.
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Describe enterprise zones?
Tax cuts to attract businesses to specific regions plus superfast broadband
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Describe regional development grants?
Cover more of the UK and develop regions giving businesses advice
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Describe EU grants?
Help the poorest regions of EU.
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What is globalisation?
The process by which trade and investment build connections between countries.
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What is foreign direct investment?
Where people in one country invest in businesses in another country to the extent they gain control over how those businesses are run.
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What are transnational coorperations?
Businesses run from one country that have control over enterprises in another.
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What is privatisation?
The sale of state-owned assets to the private sector.
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Name impacts of privatisation?
Increase in FDI, Better services if there's competition, Encourages TNC's, Removes ownership from people, Possible exploitation
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Name impacts of migration?
Pressure on services, increase in population, younger population, new cultures, more diverse
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What is deprivation?
Not having access to the same resources and opportunities as other people.
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What is the Index of multiple deprivation?
Scores small areas across the UK for a range of different measures.
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What is gentrification?
Occurs when wealthier people move into deprived areas where property is cheap. As these areas receive more investment, poor residents are moved out and house prices rise.
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What is studentification?
Occurs in cities with large numbers of universities when large numbers of young people become residents in student accommodation or other houses/flats. The disadvantages to studentification is that it can lead to an increase in anti-social behaviour
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What is deindustrialisation?
Industries move out of the cities to cheaper locations.
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What is decentralisation?
Land was cheaper and more space was available in the suburbs so businesses started to develop away from the urban core.
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Name advantages of regeneration?
New job opportunities, residents have better access to services, derelict buildings become repurposed or rebuilt
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Name disadvantages of regeneration?
Area becomes expensive, new jobs become low paid service jobs not higher paid skilled jobs, cities may lose individuality
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Name features of a consumer village?
Richer newcomers and poorer locals, many younger families, many older people have retired from the city.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Name examples of metamorphic rocks?


Shale into slate

Card 3


Name examples of igneous rocks?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is glaciation?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How has agriculture impacted the UK's landscape?


Preview of the front of card 5
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