PE Revision

What are the three type of energy systems?
Alactic (0-10s), lactic (10-60s) and aerobic (60s+)
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What is adenosine triphosphate?
A chemical compound, energy source for all muscular effort
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How are carbohydrates used in energy systems?
Broken down to glucose and stored as glycogen in muscles and liver
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How are fats used in energy systems?
Major source of energy for long term activity, is used to meet sub-maximal energy demands. During rest, fat produces most of ATP.
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How are proteins used in energy systems?
Only minimally contributes for ATP production, only used in severe circumstances (no carbohydrates or fats)
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What does the Alactic (PC) (Anaerobic) system do?
Provide bulk of ATP, maximal effort, used for explosve movement
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What does the Lactic (Anaerobic) system do?
Provides energy in high intensity/sub-maximal efforts, break down glycogen to rebuild ATP. Anaerobic glycolysis is where glucose is broken down without oxygen
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What does the Aerobic system do?
Used for sub-maximal efforts, bulk of energy, above 1 minute, fat becomes significant contribution to ATP.
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Why would you carb load?
To maximize storage of glycogen (energy)
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How do you carb load?
High intensity exercise and low carb intake 5/6 days before a long distance event, slowly increase carbs and decrease intensity
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What happens if carb loading is done wrong?
Can increase water retention and make you feel sluggish
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What happens when we sweat?
We lose water and electrolytes
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What does water do in the body?
Causes bloating, suppresses thirst and stimulates urine output
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In warm climates, the problem with heat is.....
dissipating heat
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In cool climates, the problem with heat is.....
Maintaining heat
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What is humid heat?
Body loses heat by sweating. Humidity of air prevents evaporation of sweat and can cause overheating.
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What is dry heat?
Body is able to lose heat through sweating as atmosphere will absorb moisture. Dehydration occurs faster.
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How to acclimatize to heat
Takes roughly 2/3 weeks continual training, at least 1 hour per day, in heat. Ease into it by gradually increasing intensity.
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Physiological repsonses to heat:
Increased sweat rate (allows us to sweat more), Earlier onset of sweat (sweat produced earlier), Increased plasma volume
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Reasons why sport science support is important to elite athletes?
Media pressure, larger rewards, more accurate timing so less margin for error, more funding available and other countries use it
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What is a cetralised approach to management of elite sport?
Power comes from one source, public sector funding, basic facilities and coaching in one area
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What is a decentralised approach to the management of elite sport?
Power/control comes from many sources, linked to league/club control, private sector funding
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What is a response? give an example
Short term and temporary - increased rate and depth of breathing
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What is an adaptation? give an example
long term and permanent - Increased muscular hypertrophy
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Aerobic adaptations
Increased stroke volume, bradycardia, increased cardiac output, capillarisation, increased number and density of mitochondria, increased myoglobin, reduction in body fat
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How do we calculate our aerobic training zone? (Karvonen method)
220 - age and the it's between 60% and 80% of that
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What is anaerobic threshold?
The intensity at which the aerobic energy systems become dominant energy providers
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What is lactate threshold?
The exercise intensity at which lactic acid starts to accumulate in the bloodstream because it is produced faster than its being removed
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Anaerobic adaptations
Increased PC stores, increase lactic acid tolerance, increased thickness of the ventricular myocardium, decreased end-systolic volume, increased stroke volume, myofibrillar hypertrophy
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Why do we warm up?
Increase muscle elasticity, Increase heart rate, Prevet rsk of injury
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4 Stages of a warm up
Initial preparation, injury prevention, skill practice and sport specific
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Give 4 types of heat illness
Hypo/hyperthermia, heat cramps, heat syncope (fainting) and heat exhaustion
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What is stretching used for?
To increase the elasticity of a muscle and connective tissue which increases ROM at a joint
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What is static stretching?
Muscle is taken to elastic limit and stays there for 30 seconds. Active and passive are static stretching.
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What is active stretching?
This is where you assume a position and hold it with no assistance
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What is passive stretching?
Where you assume a position and hold it with another part of your body or assistance from a partner of other apparatus
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What is dynamic stretching?
Controlled/slow movements to gradually increase reach and takes you gently into the stretch, it improves dynamic flexibility
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What is ballistic stretching?
Uses momentum of a moving body or limb in attempt to force it beyond it' normal ROM, bouncing in and out of a stretch, considered as dangerous because it can take the muscle too far
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What is PNF stretching?
Most effective way of stretching, a muscle is passively stretched, then contracts isometrically against resistance (10 seconds) then passively stretched again through the ROM and repeated
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Three methods of altitude training?
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How does altitude training work?
At altitude, the partial pressure of oxygen is lower than at sea level, this forces the body to make adaptations. It causes an increase to red blood cells which means more haemoglobin so more oxygen
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Negative effects to altitude training?
Time consuming as it is 4 weeks, benefits don't last long, low intensity to VO2max won't be as high, can't train as hard or recover as quick
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Benefits of computer analysis?
Helps analyse performance, helps coach with analysis, comparisons can be made to perfect model, can be used as a motivational tool
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Why do athletes use computer analysis?
To improve performance, as all other competitors are using it, to try and get a competitive advantage
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Limitations to computer analysis?
Coach has to have knowledge of the sport, perfect model doesn't always have to be followed, may be hard to use and may cause demotivation
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What is Prozone?
Most frequently used by sports teams, analyse the technical, tactical and physical side of the game
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What is Dartfish?
Analysis of movements, can compare to the perfect model, analyses distance and angles, can draw to analyse position
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is adenosine triphosphate?


A chemical compound, energy source for all muscular effort

Card 3


How are carbohydrates used in energy systems?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How are fats used in energy systems?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How are proteins used in energy systems?


Preview of the front of card 5
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