Physical Development

What is Growth?
A change in size or weight
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What is Development?
Acquiring new skills and capabilities
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What are Developmental Norms?
Used to access whether children'adolescents are developing at the same rate as their peers
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What are Developmental Milestones?
An expected skill for someone to do at a certain age
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What is Life Course?
A distinct phase that we go through in life
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What is Maturation?
The action or process of getting older mentally and physically
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What is Life Expectancy?
The average period of time that a person is expected to live to
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What measurements are taken from a newborn?
Head circumference, height and weight
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What measurements are taken from a child/adult?
Waist, foot size, bust/chest, hips and leg/arm span
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What is conception?
The fertilisation of an egg by a sperm, resulting in the formation of a zygote
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What is delayed development?
Occurs when a foetus has not shown development within the expected time range
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What is arrested development?
Occurs when development stops
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What factors can cause arrested/delayed development?
Diseases- HIV, Zika virus, Medication, Drugs, Genetic conditions, STIs, Stress, Smoking, Drinking, Abuse- physical trauma
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What happens in weeks 1-4 of foetal development?
The cells form a hollow cavity (blastocyst) which burrows itself in the uterus lining (implantation). At 4 weeks the zygote is called an embryo. The outer cells form the placenta by linking to the mother's blood supply
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What happens in weeks 5-8 of foetal development?
Brain and spinal cord start to form, blood circulation begins and the heart will develop quickly. at 6-7 weeks the embryo is now a foetus, eyes and ears are beginning to take shape, the heart can be heard on an ultrasound
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What happens in weeks 9-13 of foetal development?
All the organs and structures have formed, the baby is moving but cannot be felt
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What happens in weeks 13-20 of foetal development?
Head and body are proportional, hair, eyelashes and eyebrows begin to grow
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What happens in weeks 21-24 of foetal development?
Baby is covered in fine hair called the lanugo, the baby can be felt when moving
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What happens in weeks 25-26 of foetal development?
The baby moves vigorously, responds to touch and sound, at 26 weeks the baby's eyelids open for the first time
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What happens in weeks 27-29 of foetal development?
Baby's heartbeat can be heard through a stethoscope, the baby is covered in a white greasy substance called the vernix
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What happens in weeks 30-31 of foetal development?
The baby is plump and smooth- vernix and lanugo begin to disappear
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What happens in week 32 of foetal development?
Baby moves downwards to prepare for birth
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What happens in weeks 33-40 of foetal development?
The head moves down into the pelvis and becomes 'engaged'
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What is adolescents?
When a child develops into an adult following the onset of puberty
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What is puberty?
A period of rapid growth during which young people reach sexual maturity and become biologically able to reproduce- secondary sexual characteristics develop
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When does puberty occur in females?
Usually between 11-13 years
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When does puberty occur in males?
Usually between 13-15 years
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What is a hormone?
It's a chemical substance which goes into the blood, targets a particular organ/gland which has a receptor for the hormone
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What are the primary sexual characteristics for females?
The uterus enlarges and the vagina lengthens, the ovaries begin to release eggs and the menstrual cycle commences
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What are the primary sexual characteristics for males?
Enlargement of the penis and testes, spontaneous erections due to blood flowing into chambers the testicls begin to produce spermatozoa- the beginning of ***********
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What are the secondary sexual characteristics for females?
Breasts develop and the areola swells and darkens, hair grows in the armpits and pubic area, redistribution of body fat causing the hips to widen
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What are the secondary sexual characteristics for males?
Changes in the larynx causing the voice to deepen, hair grows in the armpits, face and pubic area, redistribution of muscle fat and tissue
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When do young adults reach their peak physical performance?
19-28 years
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Young adults (19-45) have reached their?
Full height and strength
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What else is at its peak in young adults?
Reaction time and manual dexterity
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What does progesterone do?
It helps the uterus lining to thicken, high levels of progesterone help the baby so stay where its meant to
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What does oestrogen do?
Makes you feel sick
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What is perimenopause?
When the ovaries begin to make less oestrogen- which gradually stops the production of eggs
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How long does perimenopause last?
On average 4 years
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What is menopause?
When the ovaries stop producing eggs
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What are the symptoms of perimenopause?
Hot flushes, night sweats, breast tenderness, loss of libido, fatigue, irregular/heavy periods, vaginal dryness, mood swings, urine leakage when coughing/sneezing, urinal urgency
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When is fertility at its highest?
Late teens, early 20s
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What risk increases at 46-65 years (Middle Adulthood)
Miscarriage and pregnancy complications
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At what age does menopause start?
45-55 years
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What does menopause increase?
The production of gonadotrophins- cause hot flushes and irritability
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What can cause osteoporosis?
Reduction in sex hormones
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What are the symptoms of menopause?
Grey hair, skin elasticity, infertility, thinning/loss of hair, loss of muscle tone/strength, high risk of miscarriage and still birth, ovaries stop producing eggs, weight gain
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What is life expectancy?
The average number of years a person should live to
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What becomes more susceptible to disease in later adulthood? (65+)
The heart
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Why do individuals lose height?
Due to posture and compression of the spinal discs and joints
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Adults in later adulthood also lose?
Muscle strength, muscle and stamina
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What becomes difficult in later adulthood?
Mobility and dexterity
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What do changes in the brain include?
A loss of or a shrinkage of nerve cells which can cause a slowing of response
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Later adults may also experience?
Visual and hearing problems
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Parkinson's and Alzheimer's are more common in?
Older people
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What can mild cognitive impairment be a sign of?
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Ageing can cause a loss of nerve cells in the brain which reduces?
The ability of the nerves to transmit electrical signals
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What don't people lose?
Logic or the ability to draw on the wealth of experience
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What happens when an individual reaches their late sixties?
Their body functions begin to decline
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What are some physical changes due to ageing?
Loss of muscle tone, grey hair, thinning of hair, loss of dexterity, difficulty with mobility, height decreases, bad posture, eyesight and hearing problems, weight changes
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What is the main function of the heart?
To pump blood around the body, which will take oxygen and nutrients to the cells for the essential life processes
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The heart is a muscle so it requires?
A blood supply to provide it with oxygen, glucose and other nutrients
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What is cardiovascular disease?
A disease of the heart and the blood vessels
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What can cholesterol do?
Build up in the blood vessels and 'clog them up'. This is called Atherosclerosis
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Atherosclerosis can lead to?
High blood pressure, stroke, heart attack, blood vessels lose elasticity, the heart to work harder, the heart to increase in size, fatty deposits to break away, blocked arteries
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is Development?


Acquiring new skills and capabilities

Card 3


What are Developmental Norms?


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Card 4


What are Developmental Milestones?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is Life Course?


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