Political Developments - Industrialisation

  • Created by: july6tlc
  • Created on: 23-05-17 11:33
What was ‘hereditary monarchy’?
All the monarchs come from the same family, and the crown is passed down from one member to another member of the family
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What was patronage?
The King had the right to appoint anyone they wanted eg George III could fill Parliament with people who would support his policies.
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When did George III reign?
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When was William Pitt appointed Prime Minister?
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What was the aim of the Bill of Rights?
It aimed to prevent monarchs interfering with the law and restricted its power. It was Parliament that made laws and took decisions on eg taxation.
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The Monarchy after the Glorious Revolution of 1689 was not powerless. What could the monarch do?
Could dismiss ministers. Dissolve Parliament (but couldn’t rule without it!). Veto legislations. In essence: political was was STILL shared between Parliament and King.
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What was the demographic setup of the House of Commons?
558 members Landed gentry (or knights of the shires) Men of wealth who could afford to become MP (no salary) County member had to have an annual income of £600 Borough member had to have an annual income of £300
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What was the setup/demography of the House of Lords?
Could only have a seat of you held a hereditary title (a peerage) No elections 1783: 220 peers Wealthy aristocracy Landowners, linked by blood and marriage
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How did the franchise work in 1783?
250 000 men could vote Men who held freehold (owned by them, not rented) land of a minimum rateable value of 40 shillings per year could vote Votes could be sold to the highest bidder Bribery was widespread You had to be a Protestant
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How many people could vote?
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What was a pocket borough?
Boroughs which could be controlled by a single person who owned at least half of the "burgage tenements", the occupants of which had the right to vote in the borough's parliamentary elections.
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What was a rotten borough?
a parliamentary borough with a tiny electorate, so small that voters were susceptible to control in a variety of ways, as it had declined in population and importance since its early days.
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What was the belief underpinning the reasons to limit the franchise?
Authority exercised by those of birth, rank, property and learning in order to maintain law and order, would preserve a stable and well-governed society.
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Who influenced Pitt’s financial policies?
Dr Richard Price, a philosopher and political radical. Price came up with the idea of the Sinking Fund.
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What was the mince-pie administration?
A short-lived term for what would become the successful leadership of parliament under William Pitt. That would not last past Christmas of 1783
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What was the outcome of the 1784 election?
Pitt realised Fox’s majority was decreasing so asked the King to call an election in March 1784. Normally Parliament would stand for 7 years but the elections were called after 3 The King ‘influenced’ government controlled boroughs using patronage Th
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What year was the start of the French Revolution?
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What year did Edmund Burke condemn the revolutionaries in France with his 'Reflections of Revolution France'?
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What year was Tom Paine's 'The Rights of Man' published - in support of the French Revolution?
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What year was the Act of Union with Ireland?
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Pitt attempted parliamentary reform. What was his attempt and what happened?
Pitt wanted to solve the issues of voting distribution. Wanted to redress the balance between the over-represented south of England and the under-represented northern industrial areas. 1785: Bill was proposed which would redistribute seats
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When did William Pitt die?
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When did the French Revolutionary Wars take place?
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When did the Napoleonic Wars take place?
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When was Prince of Wales made Regent because of deteriorating mental health of George III?
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What year did USA declare war on Britain?
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Why was Britain in crisis in 1812?
Had been at war for nearly 20 years. Real poverty, starvation in towns and countryside due to bad harvests and economic depression. Unrest and outbreaks of violence occurred.
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When did Liverpool become Prime Minister?
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What problems did Lord Liverpool have to deal with?
Liverpool had to deal with economic and social distress, the demand for Catholic Emancipation in Ireland, and widespread disturbances which suggested Britain might be on the verge of a revolution (like in France).
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What were the reasons for discontent and distress after 1815?
There was discontent and distress after 1815 because, the industrial and agricultural revolutions cause widespread poverty, the after-effects of the Napoleonic War aggravated these problems and the government's actions made the situation even worse
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Why was the abolition of income tax in 1816 a problem?
To make up for the loss of income tax, Lord Liverpool increased the taxes on tea, sugar, tobacco, beer, paper, soap and candles which burdened the poor. Made gov more unpopular.
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Why did the poor not have to pay income tax before?
The poor had not paid income tax before because it only applied to people earning over £60 a year
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What is liberalism?
Liberalism is freedom, equality, toleration, free trade and moderate political and social reform
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Why did Liverpool reshuffle his cabinet in 1822?
Liverpool hoped to reduce demand for reform of parliament support for the whigs was increasing so moderate reform would be a blow at the Whigs embarrassment of handling of Peterloo and Queen Caroline affair matters made worse by Castlereigh's weak de
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How was there continuity after Liverpool's reshuffle of the cabinet?
There was change as well as continuity after the reshuffle because • Liverpool remained Prime Minister • Sidmouth remained Minister • Lord Eldon remained Lord Chancellor
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What years did Canning serve in the cabinet before the reshuffle?
Canning had served in the cabinet from 1816-1821
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Why did the Liberal Tories introduce reforms?
Liverpool severely embarrassed over handling of Peterloo. Castlereigh committed suicide which made cabinet alterations necessary. Liverpool wanted to win support of moderate reformers and keep them at bay.
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Who followed Jeremy Bentham's idea of Utilitarianism?
Peel followed Jeremy Bentham who wrote the theory of utilitarianism.
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Define Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism is the doctrine that laws are useful and efficient in order to ensure the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
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Explain the repeal of the Combination Laws in 1824
In 1824, MP, Joseph Hume helped to persuade ministers to repeal the Combination Laws (after seeing Francis Place's campaign for the abolition of the Act) so that workers could improve working conditions and press for higher wages
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Explain the Amending Act of 1825
The Amending Act of 1825 allowed trade unions to be formed but made it illegal for them to use any form of force
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How was the Amending Act not liberal?
The Amending Act was not liberal because the government's aim was to restrict rather than encourage Union Activity
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Explain the Repeal of the Test and Corporations Act of 1828
The Test and Corporations Act which stated only Anglicans could hold important positions in the state or town corporations was repealed
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How was the repeal of the Test and Corporations Act only partial?
The repeal of the Test and Corporations Act was only partial because restrictions still applied to Roman Catholics.
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Why was Catholic Emancipation passed?
Catholic Emancipation was passed because Peel and Wellington faced the threat of Civil War due to the election of Daniel O'Connell at the 1828 County Clare by-election. They had experienced war themselves so introduced the bill against personal belie
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What was done to prevent O'Connell from winning the County Clare election again?
The government raised the property qualification to £10 so that the 40 shilling freeholders no longer had the vote but this did not prevent O'Connell from winning again
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How many voters were disenfranchised by Catholic Emancipation?
The number of voters disenfranchised by Catholic Emancipation was about 80,000
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What did Catholic Emancipation do?
Catholic Emancipation allowed Catholic to sit in the House of Commons. It removed nearly all restrictions on Catholics holding public office
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When was Catholic Emancipation passed?
The Catholic emancipation Act was passed in April 1829 and eventually caused the Tory Party to disintegrate
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How did Catholic Emancipation split the Tory Party?
Catholic Emancipation split the Tory Party because the Tories felt betrayed by Wellington and especially Peel since they had previously opposed It and now believed in it because they wanted to avoid Civil War in Ireland.
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What two groups did the Tory Party split into?
Ultra Tories and Liberal Tories
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Why did the Tory Party feel betrayed by Catholic Emancipation?
The Tories felt betrayed by Catholic Emancipation because one of the most important underlying tenets of the Tory Party was support for the Church of England Peel had opposed it when Canning was Prime Minister
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Why had Peel and Wellington been bitter opponents of Catholic Emancipation?
Peel and Wellington had been bitter opponents of Catholic Emancipation on the grounds that it would lead to the breaking of the union between England and Ireland (which it eventually did)
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What were the short-term effects of Catholic Emancipation?
• Tory Party split • Canningites joined Whigs • Critics argued it was passed against Protestant will of country • Campaign by O'Connell and Catholic Association provided example of organisation and extra-parliamentary pressure • Peel was thrown out
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What were the long-term effects of Catholic Emancipation?
• Split caused Tory Leader to question survival of a new government • Peel rebuilt the party as the conservatives in 1840. Principles were based on those expounded in his Tamworth Manifesto 1834 • Many Party members never forgave Wellington and Peel
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How was Catholic Emancipation not liberal?
• Pro Catholics in Parliament before 1822 and also anti-Catholics like Peel • Issue gained importance due to emergence of Catholic Association (led by O'Connell) • Issue of Emancipation did not come to a head until after Liverpool's resignation.
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How was the Liberal Tory Government successful?
The Liberal Tory Government introduced reforms in the areas of trade, finance, criminal law, prison, the police and work which had important long term effects
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How did Wellington's speech on 2nd November 1830 split the Tory Party?
Wellington's speech on 2nd November 1830 split the Tory Party because he announced that he saw no reason for any reform of parliament.
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What else did Wellington's speech lead to?
Wellington's speech led to his own resignation and Lord Grey replacing him as Prime Minister.
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How was the Liberal Tory Government less successful?
no attempt to: repeal the Corn Law regulate adult working hours improve poor living conditions e.g. Cholera abolish slavery or reform the electoral system
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What did Grey's resignation in May 1832 after the reform bill had been defeated lead to?
Grey's resignation in May 1832 after the reform bill had been defeated led to the Days of May Crisis
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How much money was withdrawn from the Bank of England during the Days of May Crisis?
In the ten days of the May Crisis over £1.6 million of gold was withdrawn from the Bank of England
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Why didn't Peel form a new government when the King asked him to on 9th May 1832?
The King asked Peel to form a new government but he refused to take office because he knew he would have to introduce a reform bill and did not want to switch policies and ideals again so soon after pushing through with Catholic Emancipation against
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Why was the Great Reform Act passed in 1832?
of the fear of revolution out of date electoral system formation of extra-parliamentary groups influence of leading radicals poor living conditions due to Industrial Revolution
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How was the Reform Act of 1832 'great?'
Rotten boroughs were reduced franchise was extended in the counties voting qualification in boroughs made equal opened floodgates for further reforms in 1867 and 1884 voters had to register Opened the way to modern democracy
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By what percentage did the Great Reform Act increase the size of the electorate?
The Great Reform Act increased the size of the electorate by 75% overall
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How many seats were made available for redistribution because of The Great Reform Act?
143 seats were made available for redistribution because of the Great Reform Act
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How was the Reform Act of 1832 less great?
No secret ballot No women could vote working classes were excluded from franchise middle class were still underrepresented commons was dominated by wealthy landowners and the House of Lords remained dominated by Tory Peers
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What percentage of the adult male population could actually vote?
Only 18% of the adult male population could actually vote even though the size of the electorate was increased by 75%
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When was Robert Peel's - first ministry? - second ministry?
- December 1834 to April 1835 - August 1841 to June 1846
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What was the state of the country in 1841?
Economic problems Exports had fallen sharply - industrial slump. Bread prices remained high due to bad harvests since 1837. Many small banks had collapsed Chartism was popular The Whigs left a deficit of £2 million
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What was Peel’s answer to the country’s problems?
Reviving the economy Stabilise government finance Stimulate trade and industry = lower cost of living, solve unemployment
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What did Peel introduce to solve the country’s problems?
Reintroduction of Income Tax - no government has stopped it! Gradual removal or lowering of tariffs on imported goods. Bank Charter Act: stabilise the currency
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When did Peel deliver the Tamworth Manifesto?
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What happened as a result of the November 1834 general election?
In the Lichfield House Compact the Whigs had an electoral pact with the Daniel O'Connell's Irish Repeal Association; and with the radicals After 1835 there was a Tory minority government under Robert Peel
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What happened in the Ladies of the Bedchamber incident, 1839?
Robert Peel refused to be PM because of the power of the wives of many Whig peers, who were close confidants of Queen Victoria and thus exerted some political influence.
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Queen Victoria succeeds the throne.
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Start of the Chartist Movement
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Why did Peel win the 1841 election?
Distanced himself from the Ultra-Toryism of the early period and in the Tamworth Manifesto offered a new ‘conservative’ vision of politics that accepted the constitutional settlement of 1832 and promised to support reform.
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How were the poorest in society aided by Robert Peel's economic measures after 1841?
By the reintroduction of an income tax, levied on others. As most working-class men and women lived on less than £50 a year this wouldn't affect the majority of the population - who were in poverty.
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What were the arguments against repeal of the Corn Laws?
these laws were not untouchable: government had amended them in 1828 and in 1841, so repeal wasn't necessary. there was a fear that lower bread prices would be used by employers to cut wages
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Repeal of Corn Laws, year?
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How did Robert Peel fall?
in June 1846 he was defeated in the Commons by his own backbenchers joining forces with the Whigs, Irish MPs, and independent free traders, on the Irish Coercion Bill (increasing police powers in Ireland after recent unrest there).
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What other issues (aside from Corn Law repeal) had triggered the breakdown of the Tory Party?
seen as a dictatorial leader because he didn't communicate with his party enough. many of Robert Peel's backbenchers worried about the decreasing influence of the Anglican Church.
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What previous issue on Ireland had split the Whigs?
Earl Grey had resigned when he found some of his ministers negotiating with the Irish leader, Daniel O'Connell, to relax the Coercion Laws.
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How much of the crop failed in Ireland during the Irish Famine (in Robert Peel's time)?
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When was the Irish Famine?
From 1845 to 1852.
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What did Robert Peel do as starvation and the death toll rose in Ireland as a result of the Irish Famine?
He arranged for imports of poor "Indian corn" from the USA - which were not subject to duties as they were not officially recognised trade.
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What inflammatory measure did Robert Peel institute in Ireland that helped split his party?
He trebled funding for an underfunded and poorly administered Irish Catholic College, Maynooth, in County Kildare. This was considered so inflammatory for Conservative MPs that it even led to William Gladstone's temporary resignation from cabinet.
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What was the basis of the Maynooth Grant crisis?
The Maynooth College for training Catholic priests would see an increase in grants from £9000 to £26, 000, with a further £30, 000 for buildings, as proposed in 1845.
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Why did Robert Peel's Maynooth Grant proposal help destroy his political career?
opposition in the Tory party, parliament, and the country as a whole sealed Robert Peel's defeat, because much of Protestant Britain was actively against helping Catholic Irish
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Why was Robert Peel ahead of his time in terms of land reform in Ireland?
The next time this issue would be suggested was in the 1870s.
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What were the 5 political groups in 1846?
Protectionist Conservatives, Peelites, Whigs, Radicals, Irish MP's
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Which event caused a significant realignment of the two main political parties?
The split of the Conservatives over the Corn Law Repeal 1846
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What statistic regarding number of governments showed the instability of all parties at this time?
9 ministries over 20 years.
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Which 3 leaders headed the Protectionist Conservatives?
Lord Derby, Bentinck, Disraeli
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Who led the Peelites following Peel's death in 1850?
Aberdeen and Gladstone
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Which two MP's led the Whigs?
Russell, Palmerston
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Who led the Radicals?
Richard Cobden, John Bright
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How many years did Lord Russell's Whig government survive with help from Peelites?
6 years
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Which act was abolished in this time helping to promote free trade?
The Navigations Act in 1849
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Who succeeded Russell as PM in 1852?
Lord Derby
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Who took charge in 1855 after Aberdeen resigned?
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When was Palmerston's second ministry active from?
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What was the result of a growing wealth for many men in terms of voting?
The electorate was increased as men now met the income cap.
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In what year did the Liberal party form?
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Which 4 groups did it contain?
Whigs, Liberals, Radicals and Peelites.
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What was the uniting issue of the Liberal party?
To remove Derby's conservative government.
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Who became leader of the Liberal party as PM in 1859?
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Which principles did the Liberal Party stand for economically?
Free Trade
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Under whom did the Liberal dominate politics for in the next 20 years after 1868?
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Second Reform Act gives the vote to some working class men for the first time. Year?
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Gladstone's first term as Prime Minister. He pushes through a series of far-reaching administrative reforms. Year?
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Land League formed in Ireland. Parnell becomes leader of Irish Nationalists. Year?
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Third Reform Act extends the franchise to include unskilled labourers. Year?
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Redistribution of Seats Act meant size of constituents related to distribution of population. Year?
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Card 2


What was patronage?


The King had the right to appoint anyone they wanted eg George III could fill Parliament with people who would support his policies.

Card 3


When did George III reign?


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Card 4


When was William Pitt appointed Prime Minister?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What was the aim of the Bill of Rights?


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