Psychology - Paper 3 - Schizophrenia - psychological therapies

What are the 3 types of psychological therapy?
CBT, family therapy and token economies.
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According to cognitive explanations, what are the symptoms of SZ a result of?
Dysfunctional thought processes which lead to faulty interpretations of events.
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What does CBT involve?
Challenges irrational beliefs by reality testing to reduce distress. Coping strategy enhancement - patients develop cognitive strategies to cope with their hallucinations and delusions e.g. the use of distraction, concentrating on a task and + talk.
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How appropriate is CBT?
Patients have to want it (- symptoms -want to withdraw), hallucinations make it hard to engage, therapy is long process=not appropriate. However, allows ppl to take responsibility for treatment and can provide strategies for future use.
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How effective is CBT?
Pilling et al conducted a meta-analysis of CBT that included a total of 392 Ps. Concluded that CBT was effective in improving mental state both during treatment and at a follow up.
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What are the key assumptions of the family dysfunction approach to explain SZ?
SZ is caused by a pattern of verbal criticism, hostility and emotional over involvement within family communications.
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What is the aim of family therapy?
To develop a cooperative and trusting relationship in the family. To provide info about the cause and symptoms of SZ. Develop practical coping skills that enable everyone to manage SZ.
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How long does family therapy last?
3-12 months
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How appropriate is family therapy?
No side effects, benefits all family. However, need to have a family group, time consuming, everyone needs to be motivated, not appropriate for severe cases of SZ.
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How effective is family therapy?
Pharoah et al conducted a meta-analysis of 53 trials comparing family intervention therapy (+ drugs) and drugs alone Concluded that family intervention decreases the frequency of relapse and reduces hospital admissions.
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What are token economies?
Reward systems used to manage the behaviour of patients with SZ. Aims to get rid of bad habits of people who have been institutionalised for a long time e.g. poor hygiene. Based on operant conditioning.
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How does token economies link with operant conditioning?
Staff positively reinforce patients by giving them tokens when they perform desirable behaviours e.g. getting dressed in the morning Tokens are secondary reinforcers that can then be swapped for tangible rewards e.g. being able to walk outside.
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Are token economies appropriate?
Don't address symptoms, only treats - symptoms, humiliating and patronising, acts to control patients, ppl with mild symptoms will get more privileges which is unfair to ppl with severe SZ.
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Is token economies an effective way of treating SZ?
McMonagle and Sultana conducted a meta-analysis of token economy systems. Found slight evidence for improved mental state, especially with negative symptoms. However, there were only 3 studies where patients had been randomly allocated to conditions
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What are the relevant issues and debates that link to psychological therapies?
Nature vs. nurture - emphasises the role of the environment in causing and treating SZ (nuture).
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What are the other therapies available other than psychological therapies?
Psychological therapies are used with antipsychotic medication. Psychological therapies enable patients to develop coping strategies and comply with their treatment programme.
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Do psychological therapies solve the underlying cause?
Psychological therapies offer patients a way of managing their symptoms but is not a cure. Others argue that they're more likely to treat the underlying cause than biological therapies which only treat the symptoms.
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Card 2


According to cognitive explanations, what are the symptoms of SZ a result of?


Dysfunctional thought processes which lead to faulty interpretations of events.

Card 3


What does CBT involve?


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Card 4


How appropriate is CBT?


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Card 5


How effective is CBT?


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