Religion and Philosophy

Problem of evil
Argument against the existence of god.
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Bad things that happen in the world- anything that causes suffering.
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Moral evil
Morally wrong things humans do. e.g. murder
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Natural evil
Things that happen naturally which are bad for humans. e.g. earthquakes
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What does the problem of evil state?
God is omnipotent, omniscient and omnibenevolent. If he is all three, there shouldn't be any evil because he should know about it, care that it is happening and be able to stop it. There is evil so god cannot be all three/exist
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All-powerful. Should be able to stop evil.
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All-knowing. Should know that evil is happening.
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All-loving. Should want to stop evil.
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An argument which tries to show that there is a god and he is omnipotent, omniscient and benevolent.
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Four important theodicies.
-The free will defence -Saint Augustine's theory -The "soul-making" theodicy from John Hick -The book of Job(e) in the bible. There are arguments against all of these so they have not completely solved the problem of evil for everyone.
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Cosmological Argument, Who?
Thomas Aquinas
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Ethical theory
a set of rules or principles to help you make moral decisions
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10 commandments
the 10 major rules in the bible which christians and jews believe were given to them by god
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ending a pregnancy by choice
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cheating on your husband or wife / cheating with someone who is married.
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Buddhist teaching that there is no fixed, permanent self
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honest, genuine, yourself
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Brain in a vat (BIV) theory
The idea that you might be a brain in a jar, which has been tricked into thinking it has a body and a life.
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Categorical imperative
how Kant said we should work out our moral duty - it has three formulations
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being awake and aware of yourself and what is happening around you
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Déjà vu
feeling like you have seen or experienced something before
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an ethical theory or decision based on RULES
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a situation where you don't know what to do
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Divine command theory
the ethical theory that says you are doing the right thing if you follow gods commandments from the bible
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what you must do
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the thing you want or the reason you do what you do - means to an end
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the principles which guide our behaviour and tell us what is right/wrong
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assisted suicide or mercy killing for a person who is dying / in terrible pain
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Golden rule
the ethical theory that says you are doing the right thing if you treat other people the same way you would like to be treated. this is something jesus told people to do
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Good will
doing something just because it is right - from kant's ethics
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seeing something that is not real
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Hedonic calculus
the way to work out how much happiness is produced by and action, measuring it against 7 things, such as repetition and how long the happiness will last
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who you are
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something that is wrong
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a way of getting something you want - means to an end
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good, right, ethical
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what is right and wrong
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Naïve realism
the belief that your senses tell you what is real
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a decision which has nothing to do with what is right and wrong EG. what time to have lunch
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Optical illusion
something that tricks your eyes
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being able to see / hear and understand things
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doubting everything
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Social justice
the idea that society should be fair to people - no matter how poor they are, or what their race, gender, sexual identity, nationality, ability ect. that they have
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an ethical theory or decision based on CONSEQUENCES
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Thought experiment
an experiment which comes up with an idea and imagines "what if?" scenarios to try and learn something
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asking "should everyone, at all times, do this action given the chance" if your answer is no, then its morally wrong - from Kant's ethics, part of his categorical imperative
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the moral theory that the right thing to do is the one which produces the most happiness and least suffering
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something that doesnt exist, but computers make it seem like it does
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virtual reality
a computer programme that seems like real life.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2




Bad things that happen in the world- anything that causes suffering.

Card 3


Moral evil


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Card 4


Natural evil


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Card 5


What does the problem of evil state?


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