Rio de Janeiro

  • Created by: Iona112
  • Created on: 11-12-21 17:17
Rio de Janeiro importance industrially
- Brazil's second most important industrial centre, producing 5% of Brazil's GDP
- Major port
- main industries are banking finance and insurance
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Rio de Janeiro importance economically
- the Statue of Christ the Redeemer is one of the 7 new wonders of the world
- Rio hosted matches during the 2014 football World Cup and the 2016 olympics
- stunning natural surroundings and beaches
- one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisph
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Rio de Janeiro population
- is the second largest city in Brazil
- 2014 had a population of 6.5 mill in the city and 12.5 mill in the surrounding area
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How & why has Rio grown
- grown rapidly last 50 years to become a major industrial, administrative, commercial & tourist centre
- economic activities have attracted many migrants
- migrants have also contributed to Rios economic development
- Rio has a racially mixed pop
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Northern Zone of Rio
- The city's main industrial and port area
- the city's international airport and football stadium are here
- an area of low-quality housing and favelas
- location of the Tijuca National park
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West zone of Rio
- main Olympic stadiums and competitor village are located here
- Barra da Tijuca has changed from a lower class area into a wealthy coastal suburb with luxury apartments, shopping malls, recreational and tourist facilities
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Centre of Rio
- oldest part of the city with many historic buildings
- the city's CBD and main shopping area
- financial centre with headquarters of Brazil's largest oil and mining companies
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south zone of Rio
- developed after tunnels were cut through the mountains
- Rio's main tourist hotels and beaches are here
- Wealthiest district in the whole of South America
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Social challenges in Rio
- Rio has challenges in providing important services for its rapidly growing population:
- health care
- education
- water supply
- energy
- difficult because of the contrasts between areas often very close to each other, causes great inequality
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Healthcare challenges in Rio
- in 2013 only 55% of the city had a local family health clinic
- services for pregnant women and the elderly were very poor especially in the West zone
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Health care solutions
example of how authorities tried to improve health care is the favela of Santa Marta
- on a steep hillside with pop of 8,000
- hard to access the hospital
- medical staff took a health kit into peoples homes & treated them
- life expectancy up
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Education challenges
- education in Brazil is compulsory up to age 14
- 1/2 of children in Rio continue their education after 14
reasons are:
- shortage of nearby schools
- lack of money & a need to work
- shortage of teachers as low pay
- poor teacher training
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education solutions
- encouraging local people to volunteer in schools
- giving school grants to poor families to cover costs of keeping them in school
- making money available to pay for free sports lessons in Rocinha favela
- opening a private uni in Rocinha favela
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Water supply challenges
- around 12% if Rio's population do not have access to running water
- it is estimated that 37% of water is lost through leaky pipes, fraud & illegal access
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water supply solutions
- most of the work has been on improving the quantity of quality of water in the favelas and in the Olympic park
- 7 new treatment plants were built between 1990 & 2014
- over 300 k of pipes have been laid
- in 2014 95% of the pop had a mains water supply
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energy challenges
- whole city suffers frequent blackouts due to shortage of electricity. The growing population will make the situation worse
- many people living in poorer parts get their electricity by illegally tapping into the main supply which is risky & unsafe
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energy solution
electricity supply to Rio has been improved by
- installing 60 km of new power lines
- building a new nuclear generator
- developing a new hydro- electric complex which will increase Rio's supply by 30%
- it took 6 years to build and cost over $ 2 bill
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economic growth has brought
- improvements to Rio's roads, transport , services and environment
- the policy to improve the city's favelas has improved the quality of life for many people
- growing economic prosperity has attracted large companies to Rio & created many new job opps
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Rio income stats
rio has one of the highest incomes per head in the country
richest 1% earn 12% of Rio's total income
The income of the poorest 50% is only 13% of the total
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unemployment in Rio
- 2015 Brazil's econ hit by deep recession, increase unemployment
- people protested about high taxes, bad education & bad health care
- unemployment is a reason for Rio's inequality
- unemployment rates in the favelas are over 20%
-most work in informal
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informal employment
employment outside the official knowledge of the government
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what is being done about unemployment
-gov using education to reduce youth unemployment
- schools of tomorrow programme aims to improve education for young people in poor areas of Rio, has courses for practical skills, courses available for adults
- free child care for teen parents so can re
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what is the crime problem in Rio
- robbery & violent crime present great challenges in Rio
- Murder, kidnapping, carjacking & armed assault occur regularly
- Powerful gangs control drug trafficking in many Favelas
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what steps are police taking to control crime
- in 2013 Pacifying Police Units (UPPs) were established to reclaim favelas from drug dealers
- police have taken control of crime-dominated Complex do Alemao and 30 smaller favelas
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criticism of the polices actions
- criticism that the police were targeting favelas near the Olympic sites
- people living in these areas think this is an attack on their freedom
- police argue that lower crime rate, increased property values & growing tourism are the positives
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Environmental challenges
Squatters and sprawl
-around 40% of Rio's population live in favelas
- extensive sprawl along coastal areas
- many squatter settlements built on hillsides are prone to landslides
- dereliction due to de-industrialistion of industries eg steel
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air pollution
- estimated to cause 5000 deaths per year in Rio
- city often covered in brown smog
- heavy traffic on roads causes build- up of exhaust fumes
- mist from Atlantic mixes with vehicle exhaust fumes and pollutants from factory chimneys
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Traffic congestion
- most congest city in S America
- steep mountains- roads can only be built on coastal lowland
- tunnels through the mountains needed
- number of cars have grown by over 40% in last decade
- high crime levels, many prefer to travel by car
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Solutions for air pollution and traffic
- expansion of the metro system
- new toll roads into city centre
- making coast roads one way during rush hours
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water pollution
- Guanabara Bay is highly polluted causing major threat to wildlife
- commercial fishing has declined by 90% in the last 20 years
- danger that pollution could affect some of the beaches which would damage tourism and the local economy
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sources of water pollution
- many of the 55 rivers flowing into bay are highly polluted
- rivers polluted by run off from open sewers in favelas
- over 200 t of sewage & 50 t of industrial waste enters bay each day
- ships empty fuel tanks in bay as no facilities to dispose fuel
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solutions to water pollution
overseas aid used to reduce amount of sewage released into the bay:
- 12 new sewage works built since 2004, cost $68 mill
- ships are fined for discharging fuel into bay illegally
- 5km of new sewage pipes installed around badly polluted areas
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waste pollution
- the worst waste problems are in the favelas
- many built on steep slopes & have few proper roads, means access difficult for waste collection lorries so most waste is dumped & pollutes the water system
- causes diseases like cholera & encourages rats
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Solutions for waste pollution
- a power plant has been set up near the university of Rio using methane gas from rotting rubbish
- consumes 30 tonnes of rubbish a day & produces enough electricity for 1000 homes
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why have favelas grown
- people leave Amazonia and the trough-hit areas of north east Brazil countryside in the hope of finding a better life in the city
- many are young adults so the birth rates are higher than in the more prosperous parts of the city
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what are favelas
- squatter settlements in Brazil are called favelas
- they are illegal settlements where people have built homes on land that they did not own
- areas of great deprivation
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where are the favelas located
up to a 1000 favelas in the greater Rio area:
- 60% are in the suburbs
- 25% in the outer parts of the city
-some are up to 40 km from the city centre
- the authorities have cleared many near the city centre to make Rio more attractive to business and tou
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- largest favela in Rio
- had a pop of 75000 in 2010 census but is now likely to be 3 times higher
- built on a very steep hillside over looking the wealthy areas, where many work
- more regular work slows improvements to be carried out by the people them
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improvements made to Rocinha
- 90% of houses built with brick & with electricity, running water, & sewage systems
- many have TVs and fridges
- its own newspaper & radio station
- retail facilities including food, clothes, bars and Mac Donalds
- schools, health facilities & a private
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challenges of squatter settlements
- houses are poorly constructed, as built illegally with basic materials
- many favelas built on steep slopes & heavy rain can cause landslides, in 2010 224 people were killed & 13 000 lost there homes in landslide
- limited road access as steep slopes
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challenges of squatter settlements
-in non-improved favelas 12% have no running water, over 30% have no electricity & 50% have no sewage connections
- sewers are often open drains
- drinking water often obtained by tapping into a city water main, taps are often at bottom of steep slopes
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challenges of squatter settlements
- unemployment rates are as high as 20%
- much employment is poorly paid with irregular jobs in the informal sector
- average incomes may be less than £75 a month
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challenges of squatter settlements
- high murder rate of 20 per 1000 people in many favelas
- drug gangs dominate many favelas
-many inhabitants distrust the police because of violence and corruption
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challenges of squatter settlements
- populate densities of 37000 per km
- infant mortality rates are as high as 50 per 1000
- waste cant be disposed & builds up on streets increasing danger of disease
- burning rubbish often sets fire to the wooden houses, smoke is harmful to health
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how are favelas being improved
- moving people to new areas to reduce over crowding
- developing rural areas to encourage more to stay in countryside
- raising taxes for rich to help pay for housing for poor
- forced eviction from favelas to clear land for development
- moving to basic
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Favela Bairro project
is a site and service scheme where the local authority provides land and services for residents to build homes. An example of this is Complexo do Alemão
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Complexo do Alemão
- a group of favelas in Rio's North Zone with more than 60,000 people
- the local authority have been responsible for many new improvements here
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improvements to Complexo do Alemão
- paved roads, access to water &drainage system
- hillsides secured to prevent landslides & ppl relocated if needed
- building of new health, leisure & education facilities
- installation of cable car system, locals get a free return ticket a day
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positives of the Favela Bairro Project
- quality of life, mobility & employment prospects of the inhabitants have improved because of the project. I t has been recognised as a model by the UN & has been used in other Brazilian cities
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negatives of the Favela Bairro Project
- the budget of $ 1bill won't cover every favela
- newly-built infrastructure not being maintained, residents lack skills & resources to make repairs
- more training needed to improve literacy & employment
- rent rise in the favelas & the poorest are wors
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The effect of the Olympics on the favelas
- some favelas have been demolished to make way for the developments for the Olympic Games
- about 1000 people have lost their homes to make way for a new road
- plans to demolish 3000 houses ahead of the games
- development of Campo Grande
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Campo Grande
- small town 90 minute drive from city centre
- 800 new houses built there for people whose homes were demolished
- houses are better than in the favelas but it lacks sense of community, no shops, nowhere for children to play & a long way from city
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Rio de Janeiro importance economically


- the Statue of Christ the Redeemer is one of the 7 new wonders of the world
- Rio hosted matches during the 2014 football World Cup and the 2016 olympics
- stunning natural surroundings and beaches
- one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisph

Card 3


Rio de Janeiro population


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How & why has Rio grown


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Northern Zone of Rio


Preview of the front of card 5
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