Russia 1917-91: From Lenin to Yeltsin- Control of the People, 1917-85

How can control of the people section be split up?
Mass Media/Propaganda/Religion; Personality Cults; Secret Police; Culture and Arts
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How did the Bolsheviks move to control Newspapers?
Ban all non-bolshevik newspapers by early 1920's
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What was the party's newspaper called?
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What was the censorship office called?
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How were newspapers used by the party?
Promote the achievments of socialism
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What was the Sport magazine called?
Sovetskii Sport
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Why was control of radio useful in the 1920's?
65% of pop. was illiterate; allowed to spread party's message vocally
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How many radio stations did Brezhnev allow?
3- Radio 'Lighthouse' played some foreign music even
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How many TV channels were there by 1985?
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What were the main results of censorsship of mass media?
Restricted information available to the public; steady stream of socialist propaganda; distract from daily struggles
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Did the nature of control over mass media change over time?
No, same amount of control just over different platforms i.e Radio-TV
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How is a personality cult a method of control?
Enhancing staus of a leader with aim to create a sense of loyalty to them/raise status to above party collegues
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What were the main features of Stalin's cult?
Closeness to Lenin; defender of socialism; father-figure etc
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What were the main features of Khrishchev's cult?
Interaction with public; defend his policies
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What were the main features of Brezhnev's cult?
'First among equals'; military hero
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Why did Bolsheviks see religion as a threat?
Provided an alternative way of thinking to rival the CP; promoted the rights of individuals rather than the collective
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Why did the Orthodox Church come under serious attack by Lenin?
Attached to the old Tsar who was the church's head; it was a religion that Lenin thought held back people
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How was the Church's influence curbed?
Publications banned; 4/5 of churches destroyed by 1930
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What time period was religion tolerated?
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What was Khrushchev's views on religion?
Athiest; attacked priests and curbed rights to worship
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What was control over religion like under Brezhnev?
Happy to allow churches to act within defined limits; used to support Soviet policies
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How was the influence of Islam curbed by the CP?
Most mosques closed down; against veils on women; Polygamy prohibited
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Why was Islam more dangerous to the Bolsheviks and how was this illustrated?
More deeply engrained into daily life; serious revolts in southern Russia-only stopped by Red Army
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What was the name of the Secret Police under Lenin?
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Who was the leader of the Secret Police under Lenin?
Felix Dzerzhinsky
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What did Dzerzhinsky stand for?
Organised terror
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How was the secrte police allowed to act under Lenin and Stalin?
Exempt from legal interference
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What was the terror called under Lenin, when was it from and how many people died?
Red Terror, 1921-22, 200,000
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Who was largely targeted under Lenin?
Counter-revolutionaries (Mensheviks/Socialist-Revolutionaries)
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Nme of Secret Police under Stalin?
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How did the 5YP's identify a range of opponents the needed to be dealt with?
Class-enemies (Kulaks etc); Stalin's political opponents were arrested by the NKVD to confess (often used torture)
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3 secret police leaders in order...
Yagoda, Yezhov, Beria
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What were the main features of Yagoda's time?
Turn gulags into an economic asset to supoprt 5YP's
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What was Yezhov's nickname?
Bloody Dwarf
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What were the main features of Yezhov's time?
Number of gluag prisoners increased dramtically-alongside quotas for executions; surveillance of public increased (plain-clothed)
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What were the main features of Beria's time?
Gulag increasingly profitable by improving productivity of workers (increased rations); 1950= 1/3 of coal made by gulag
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What were the key differences between Lenin and Stalin's use of the secret police?
Stalin used if widely on the party- not just external enemies outside of the CP
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How were the secret police used during WW2?
Use of SMERSH to identify and eliminate any hostile elements in the Red Army- anyone suspected of cooperating with the Germans
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What impact did the removal of Beria have on terror?
Secret Police brought firmly under party control and Khrushchev set about dismantling Gulag
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Who was head of the KGB after 1967?
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Who was targeted under Androvpov?
Nationalists; Political Dissidents; Intellectuals; Religious Dissidents;
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What was 'Samizdat'
Illegal notes published and spread by dissidents
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What actions were taken by the KGB to supress dissident activity?
Harassment and surveillance; label of dissident would harm work and study opportunities; internal or external exile (Solzhenitsyn); mental hospitals
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What two books were written by Solzhenitsyn?
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovic; The Gulag Archipeligo
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Which book written by Solzhenitsyn was allowed by Khrushchev and why?
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovic- Critisised Stalin and his policies
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What impact, if any, did dissidents have?
Externally a source of embarrassment for the government; internally they had v. little support
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Were Andropov's and the KGB's actions effective?
Yes, dissidents were a v. small group which never threatened social and political stability
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How did methods used by the secret police change under Andropov?
Increasingly sophisticated, use of bugs and spies, increasingly efficient and professional
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What figure illustrates the change in methods used by Andropov?
100,000 dissidents exiled
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How did Lenin try to keep artisist on side?
Establishment of the Commisariat of Enlightenment
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What was the Bolsheviks aim with regards to culture and art?
To sweep away old bourgeois culture- serve a purpose whilst building the socialist state
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First type of art pursued by the Bolsheviks and what was it?
Prolekult- Establish a proletarian culture focusing on collective work
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During the 1920s what type of art was popular with the Bolsheviks?
Avant-garde (experimental art); could express their views through visual means
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Problem with avant-garde art?
Use of cinemas and theatre was too sophisticated for most people- couldn't mould their views
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Did Lenin allow freedom of the arts?
To a certain extent yes
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Why did greater freedom of arts come under critisism?
Under context of 5YPs needed unquestionable loyalty of artists to avoid any anti-party material
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Name of attack on traditional artists and writers and when did it happen?
Cultural Revolution: 1928-32
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Name of body which attacked some writers?
Russian Association of Proletarian Writers (RAPP)
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What type of work did RAPP produce?
'Cult of the 'little man'' (Achievements of industrial worker and collective peasant)
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What was RAPP replaced by in 1932?
Union of Soviet Writers
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What form of art was followed after the Cultural Revolution?
Socialist Realism
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What was Socialist Realism?
Art which represented idealistic images of life under socialism and to inspire the population
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How was Socialist Realism useful to the Soviet government?
Easy to access; inspired the population; To mobilise support for the regime
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Name of two writers who felt constricted by Socialist Realism
Boris Pasternak; Anna Akhmatova
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What happened to artists and writers who didnt conform?
Sent to gulag,
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What book did Pasternak write that Khrushchev didnt allow published?
Doctor Zhivago
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What areas were all under socialist realism?
Art, Literature, Architecture, Music, Film
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What was art and literature like under Socialist Realism?
Art: Idealistic but real images of life under socialism/ and personality cult--Literature: Focus on heroes of socialism, away from the 'little man'
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How would you describe Soviet art and culture by 1953?
Under gov. control and conservative
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In what repsect was there a relaxation for artists and writers?
Khrushchev alllowed some books which critisised Stalin under policy of de-Stalinisation
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An example of a book allowed by Khrushchev which was previously banned by Stalin?
One day in the Life of Ivan Denisovic
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What was Khrushchev's policy regarding culture called?
Cultural 'thaw'
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How was Komsomol used by Brezhnev to counter non-comformists?
Patrol streets and dance halls to report on young people who may be non-conforming
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Overall, what was the public's attitude towards art and culture between 1953-85?
Happy with traditional output from government
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How did artists and writers act during soviet control?
Usually, due to gov. threats; kept their heads down and avoided trouble
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Overall which method of control was most widely used and important 1917-53?
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Why did other forms of control become more important post-1953?
Reduction on the use of terror?
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Which form of control was most important between 1917-85?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How did the Bolsheviks move to control Newspapers?


Ban all non-bolshevik newspapers by early 1920's

Card 3


What was the party's newspaper called?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was the censorship office called?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How were newspapers used by the party?


Preview of the front of card 5
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