Russia 1917-91: Theme 3

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  • Created on: 17-05-24 11:12
How did the State Control Mass Media and propaganda? (Newspapers)
Papers: 1917 banned all non-socialist papers, early 1920s non-Bolshevik papers eliminated. Printing press nationalised, all editors/journalists = employees of the state or party members. Approval from Glavlit needed for publication. papers, achievements o
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How ware magazines and radio controlled?
M: vast selection aimed at groups, off limits = ****, crime, religion. Gave sport little coverage. R: radio receivers were expense but got message across, speakers in public areas, group listening. 1922 Moscow good broadcast system. Got msg to 65% illiter
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How was TV controlled and what were the results of state control of media?
1950s 10,000 sets, 1958 3mil. Mass prod 1960s brought in price range. 1980s mass prod, news and docs on socialist achievements and kid shows.
Censorship heavily used, not always successful. Tech of mass media changed, 1980s teach advancement, cameras, ea
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Describe the personality cult of Stalin...
Clear links between him and Lenin(none) presented him as his closest colleague and savior of revolution. 1930s, images used refernce power (all present/knowing) Defender of socialism, father figure. Man of the people, humble. Diff from real him: unrealist
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Describe what Khrushchev's personality cult was like...
Condemned Stalin's use of cult, secret speech 1956, criticized glorification of Stalin. Cult allowed him to be seen as more important party leader when power originally shared Malenkov 1953. He met personally with citizens, met collective farms. Reflected
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Describe Brezhnev's personality cult?
'First among equals' Cult less method of securing than Substitute for real power, Popular due to reluctance to use power for change. Awarded at least 100 medals, cult took practical element as his health began to deteriorate 1975.
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What were the advantages of the cults for the Party?
Provided a face for socialism, provided a figure head for the population to associate with the state. Made use of traditional values. Cult filled gap resulting from the severe restricting of religion.
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What were the religious policies of the Russian Orthodox Church like ? (lenin)
Concerns of its power/influence as and instrument of social control posed a threat to imposition of socialist gov control. Measures were intro to severely limit power of religion. *1918 decree on freedom of conscience separated church, state, deprived of
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Religious policies of Russian Orthodox Church cont... (end 1930s 4/5 all village churches destroyed. kept restricted but failed to stamp out influence.)
Large no. churches destroyed or converted, gov closed all monasteries. During famine of Civil war, Church attacks increase, objects seized to pay for food. Priests victimised, Red army 1921-22, 1923 28 bishops and 1000 priests killed.
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What was Religious policy like under Stalin?
Religious suppression campaign accompanied by collectivsation, churches closed and village priests = kulaks. Further attacks followed Great Purge 1936-39. 1939 12/163 bishops at liberty. Church supported by war effort, prompted accommodation.
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Stalin's religious policies cont...
Stalin took more liberal approach with the church --> Patriarchate re-established and some churches reopened. Some acknowledgement religion could play some beneficial role sustaining morals in hardships of war.
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What were the features of Khrushchev's anti-religious campaign?
followed active repression like Stalin before ww2. 1958-59 launched harsh anti-religious until removed 1964. Role of priests limited to spiritual advice, Parish councils under control of PO's who took action to dismiss them on the grounds they weren't nee
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Khrushchev's religious policy cont...
10,000 of existing churches were closed surviving priests were harassed by secret police, Baptists and Jews were under severe restrictions on rights to congregations and worship.
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What were the features of Brezhnev's religious policy?
persecution of church declined, B was aware of religious prosecutions didn't go well in the west and impact of USSR attempting to conduct foreign policy. Gov, Council of Religious Affairs monitor religious services and clergy classified according to loyal
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Brezhnev's religious policies cont... (Jews/Baptists likely to be critical of the regime, treated with less tolerance, preaching restricted).
Stick to normal services and support soviet policy (help the poor). But not all were happy with the submission, 1976 Orthodox priest group set up Christian Committee for defence of Believers Rights, but leader sentenced 5yr anti-soviet prop.
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What was the influence of Islam?
Central Asia regions contain sizable Muslim community, dealing with Islam more diff as more inter grained within community. Fear Islam links to national minority in USSR threaten social cohesion of state. Initially little attempt reduce influence of Shari
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What were policies over Islam like under Stalin?
Religious endowments of land prohibited mosques closed down, mullahs removed part of collectivisation process. Campaigns against veiling of women launched national women's day 1927 when huge gathering women took part. Ramadan considered interfere with dis
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What were the results of religious policy?
Orthodox church, impact on Islam was to reduce numbers engaged in active worship. Survey combined by the gov said 25% of population believed in God. Underground network support developed often provided to those whose needs not met by the gov.
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How did Lenin and Stalin use the Secret Police?
Cheka 1917 Felix Dzerzhinsky against counter-revolution and sabotage, civil war allowed it to act with minimal interference from other legal bodies. 1922 replaced by GPU, 23 OGPU independent police. Stalin: 1934 NKVD, rapid industrialisation = emergence o
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What was Yagoda's role and what was his impact within the Secret Police? (1936 accused safeguarding Kirov, removed + shot 1938)
1934, ambitious = attempt build empire, industrialisation and expansion of gulag = 1930s was system of forced labor. Economic consolidation, exploited economic resources BUT bad environments, cold, starved. White Sea Canal = 180,000 labours, 10,000 dead.
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What was Yezhov's role and impact within the Secret Police?
Engaged in most excessive phase of purges, utilised gulag = ordered no. executions to met. Surveillance public (plain clothes) No. detectives increased. Opponents widened to anyone who no show commitment to Revolution. Liked to torture people, Stalin saw
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What was Beria's role and impact within the Secret Police? (early releases cancelled, growth in camps activity 2bil roubles to 4.5 1937-40. 1950 gulag major contributor to economy)
Impressive organisation skills, saw indiscriminate arrests inefficient, more productivity needed. Arrests needed more evidence. Productivity in gulags. 1939 food rations, inmates improved to get max power. 1,000 scientists put to work on projects.
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How did the role of the secret police change during ww2, how did it strengthen it's powers? (Beria set up special departments to root out traitors, deserters)
NKVD control over process of deportation of national minorities whose loyalty to soviet state considered suspect. Forcible removed to designated areas harsh, Process conducted by 3 person Trokiees (given power outside laws). 1953 Red army overturned areas
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What was Post War Rivalry?
Stalin's last years, rivalry among Politburo members grew due to declining health. Beria launched wave purges target leningradd branch, 2,000 imprisoned/exiled members 1949. Beria signif figure in soviet polotics, significant influence over police, spy ne
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What is the evidence of Stalin's responsibility for the apparatus of Terror?
Stalin policy heavily relied on terror: rapid collectivisation process removed opps from peasants, unrealistic demands of plans pressured officials justify failures. Stalin personally signed death warrants. And Stalin's paranoia accelerated by Kirov's ***
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Evidence suggests Stalin's involvement in terror, yet raises Q bout whether Y,Y B were functionaries or influenced terror developments, what evidence suggests this ?
Y,Y and B powerful secret police leaders due to sadistic tendencies and lack of moral conscience. Stalin dismissed them and B died shortly after S died. Stalin's targets of terror were determined by his policies, personality BUT 3 took opp to add names to
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What evidence suggests that Y, Y and B had influenced developments in terror? cont...
Yezhov's increased use of terror within the party due to his frentic personality, leading to terror becoming pervasive in soviet society. Beria oversaw a shift in Gulag focus on productivity making it less cruel
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Who was Andropov and how did he control the secret police?
After death of Stalin, surveillance of perceived enemies continued. 1953 this was the work of the KGB. 1967 organisation was then headed by Yuri Andropov.
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Who were dissidents ?
Intellectuals: high scientists faced political restrictions, required them to participate in politics for promotion. Political dissidents: groups established monitor SU application of UN Declaration on Human Rights and Helsinki Accords 1975, aim hold gov
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Who were dissidents? cont...
Nationalists: Ukrainians, Latvians, Lithuanians and Georgian nationalists groups called for greater recognition of the lang/cultures, authorities were aimed. Religious dissidents: included dissidents Baptists, Catholics who faced restrictions on their wor
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What actions were taken against dissidents ?
Police reconnoitered/harassed them, published restrictions/dismissed, searched homes and confiscated materials. 1960, new crime code limited KGB powers + abolished nighttime integrations. Article 70 allowed authorities deal with anti-soviet propaganda.
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What actions were taken against dissidents ? cont...
Sent to specials hospitals run by NKVD and patients held there until they were 'cured' usually agreeing to change their views. treated with electric shocks and drugs... People were often sent to exile, imprisoned or executed...
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What was the impact of dissidents ?
Treatment of dissidents was a source of irritation o the gov. Helsinki Accords signed 1975 aimed for freedom of thought/conscience. Human rights viewed treatment of dissidents as a violation of agreement. 1970s, Andropov effectively controlled dissident g
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What were Bolshevik attitudes like towards arts and popular culture?
1917 B party divided importance of cultural policy Lenin believed culture vital but subordinate to class conflict. Wanted to keep high caliber writer/artists aboard. Lenin made Commissariat of Enlightenment support/ encourage artists work with new regime,
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What was Avant-Garde?
Result of ww1 sweeping away the old world as was new gov and led to wave of experimentation. Modernism's abstract art style was combined with futurism's influence to create futuristic art. V. Mayakovsky for poster art, producing innovative slogans, poster
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What was Avant-Garde? cont...
Painting and sculpture K. Malevich and V. Kandinsky were 'Fellow Travelers' producing experimental work. Despite low literacy rates, Bolsheviks emphasized visual arts. Futurist influenced science fiction. relative new, cinema was open to experimentation.
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What was Prolekult?
Alexander Bogdanov, Anatoly Lunacharsky promoted strand of cultural policy advocating state use new tech to create its own 'Proletarian Culture', aim to gather new group proletarian artists for social/political purposes.
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What was Prolekult? cont... (prolekult gained support but faced restrictions in 1920s due to diverse viewpoints expanded)
Constructivists aimed create new socialist culture focusing on collective workers as a class. Encouraged workers/peasants create own culture. Gov used festivals/extra food rations to develop socialist culture. Party made parades in Red Square Moscow.
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What was the impact of the Cultural revolution? (Russian Association of Proletarian Writers (RAPP) criticised fellow travelers, influenced by Prolekult and emphasized workers achievements)
Late 1920s revolution influenced by Lenin's 5 yr plan, collectivisation, sought to eliminate bourgeois elements in society. Led to massive assault on trad writers/artist. Replacing those who remained loyal to him. Young Komsomol attack bourgeois elements.
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What was socialist realism and what was its impact? (Stalin opposed avant-garde art, preferring traditional, government-driven art, leading new development art.)
1932 closure of RAPP and establish union of soviet writers (end of CR). Artists used to promote Socialist Realism, idealised life under socialism to inspire the pop. Soviet writers regulated movement, rewarded those who compiled and restricted those didn'
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What was socialist realism's impact on art, literature, music, architecture?
*avant-garde style rejected and art portrayed ideal images of life under plans, fusion SR and personality cult. * 1930s novels shifted from cult to heroes connected to party, high literature of Mikhail Sholokokhov, focus on heroes of Russian history, low
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Socialist realism cont... on music and architecture?...
*Gov preferred military songs over jazz leading to ban of saxophone 1940s, stick to well-worn themes then experiment. *Stalinist baroque, used classical lines in public buildings (Moscow uni, public transport) Elaborate murals showcasing workers efforts.
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What was the impact of social realism ?
Form of gov propaganda, accessible art and popular culture. Critical for being out of touch with reality. Gov used these images to inspire and escalate support.
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Nonconformity and impact of de-Stalinisation on culture? (Development of urban groups, listen pop/rock (labelled rude/ignorant) use of tape recorders allowed music reach larger audiences).
Khrushchev de-Stalinisation provided artists and writers with more freedom, allowed prev banned work be published. K's policy = publication 'one day in the life' of Ivan Denisovich where gave detailed info of life in Gulag. Late 50s youth influenced by we
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What was Non-conformity in Brezhnev years?
*official culture focused on propaganda and socialism achievements, 1970s culture became conservative and led artists to focus on sexual themes rather than political. Soviet youth drawn to western cultural trends. Vladimir Vysotsky's funeral 80 concern a
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Non-conformity in B years cont...
Elderly men in Politburo struggled to understand rock and disco's appeal but couldn't suppress it. Control over rock production and radio airtime exercised but cassette recorders developments undermined.
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Khrushchev 1950s and non-conformity?
Khrushchev refused to accept widespread non-conformity (alcoholism and lazy gov) policies of 'popular oversight' where popular challenge to non-conformity behavior, particularly women, campaign against women in western clothes, implied promiscuity. 'loose
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What was the trial of Joesph Brodsky 1964?
Joseph Brodsky, poet who dropped out at 15, arrested by secret police for 'parasitism' and 'depravity'. He was sentenced 5years in prison, claiming he had nothing of value. After 2 years, he was released but expelled from the Soviet Union, demonstrating t
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What was the trial of Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel, 1966?
In 1965, KGB arrested writers Sinyavsky and Daniel for their short novels, accusing them of anti-Soviet propaganda. The arrest sparked a student demonstration and intellectual support. Sinyavsky was sentenced to seven years in a labor camp.
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How was control further clampdown?
Sov gov regulated cultural output through state subsidies, radio access,privileges for artists, writers, removing troublemakers, facilitating talks for who strayed too far. 1982-84 Andropov gov tackled underground pop culture by restricting non-official s
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The chapter explores the Soviet government's control methods since 1917, emphasizing propaganda and culture control. By the 1950s, economic hardship was the main threat, and terror usage decreased.
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Card 2


How ware magazines and radio controlled?


M: vast selection aimed at groups, off limits = ****, crime, religion. Gave sport little coverage. R: radio receivers were expense but got message across, speakers in public areas, group listening. 1922 Moscow good broadcast system. Got msg to 65% illiter

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How was TV controlled and what were the results of state control of media?


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Card 4


Describe the personality cult of Stalin...


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Describe what Khrushchev's personality cult was like...


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