Short term physiological preperation

Short term physiological preperation
Chapter 1
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What are the three types of energy systems?
Alactic (PC) (0-10) seconds, Lactic (10-60) and Aerobic (60+)
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What does the alactic system do?
Provide bulk of ATP, for maximal effort and used for explosive movements.
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What does the lactic system do?
Provides energy in high intensity, sub maximal efforts, breaks down glycogen to rebuild ATP. Anaerobic glycolysis, breaks down glucose without oxygen.
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What does the aerobic system do?
Sub-maximal efforts, bulk of energy, used after 60 seconds, fat becomes the significant contributor to ATP.
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What is adenosine triphosphate?
ATP - A chemical compound which is the energy source for all effort.
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What are the three food group that provide energy?
Carbohydrates, Fats and Protein.
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How are carbohydrates used to give energy?
Broken down and glucose is stored as glycogen in muscles and liver.
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How are fats used to give energy?
Major source of energy for long term activity, used for sub-maximal demands nd during rest fat produces most of ATP.
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How are proteins used to give energy?
Only minimally contribute to ATP production and only used in severe circumstances (no carbohydrates or fats)
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How do you manipulate the diet?
Adequate fuel for exercise intensity, fuel stores are full, fuel sources are supplemented during if required, fuel stores are replenished immediately.
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Why would you carbo-load?
Carb-loading is used by athletes to maximize the storage of glycogen. The body needs o be under stress for it to work.
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How do you carbo-load?
High intensity and low carb intake around 5/6 days before event. Lower intensity and increase carbohydrates gradually till event.
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When we sweat, what do we lose?
Water and electrolytes.
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What percentage does hydration affect performance?
1% body loss = 5% performance loss
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What are electrolytes? What is the main electrolyte?
They are essential minerals that help to regulate and manage the fluid levels and maintain homeostasis. Sodium is the main electrolyte.
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What does water do?
Make up large portion of the body, causes bloating, suppresses thirst, stimulates urine output
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What do electrolytes do?
Sodium and potassium reduce urine output, they enable fluid to empty stomach quickly
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What are the two main factors that affect speed at which fluid goes into the body?
Speed it's emptied into the stomach and the rate at which it's absorbed through the walls of the small intestie.
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What three types of sports drink are there?
Isotonic (same blood sugar content than blood), Hypotonic (low osmatic pressure), Hypertonic (higher osmatic pressure)
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What is osmotality?
A measure of the number of particles in a solution, in a drink the particles comprise carbohydrates, electrolytes, sweeteners and preservatives. In blood, the particles comprise sodium, protein and glucose. Higher carb level = leave stomach slower.
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Argument against sports drinks?
No difference in times between 50 runners with water and 50 runners with sports drinks. World record was broken by using water. Water is just as accessible as sports drinks in shops. Carbs in sports drinks only help endurance athletes.
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What environmental conditions can affect performance?
Temperature, humidity, altitude, winds, pollution level.
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What is the problem with heat in warm climates?
Dissipating body heat.
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What is the problem with heat in cool climates?
Maintaining body heat.
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What is humid heat?
Body loses heat by sweating but the humidity of air prevents evaporation of sweat and can cause overheating.
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What is dry heat?
Body is able to lose heat through sweating as atmosphere will absorb moisture. Dehydration occurs faster.
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How does and athlete heat acclimatise?
2/3 weeks training in heat, average at least 1 hour daily moderate exercise in hot conditions, gradually ease into heat by starting with low intensity.
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What are five main physiological responses to heat?
Increased plasma volume (production of plasma proteins causes more electrolytes), Cardiovascular adjustments (as blood flows to skin, venous return and cardiac output cause loss in submaximal VO2), ANS habitation, increased/earlier onset sweat rate.
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What are four different heat illnesses?
Heat syncope (fainting, hypo/hyperthermia (hypo=body drops below required heat, hyper=too much heat), heat cramps (lost sweat), heat exhaustion (inability to exercise in hot environment).
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Why do we warm up?
Increase muscle elasticity, increased heart rate and prevent risk of injury.
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What are the four stages of a warm up?
Stage 1 – Initial Preparation: gross motor skills and pulse raiser. Stage 2 – Injury prevention. Stage 3 – Skill Practice. Stage 4 – Sport Specific.
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What are the training methods for altitude training?
Live high train high (LHTH), live low train high (LLTH), live high train low (LHTL).
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List 6 aerobic adaptations
Increased stroke volume, Increased cardiac output, decrease resting heart rate (bradycardia), capillarisation, Increased number and density of mitochondria, increase lactate threshold.
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List 6 anaerobic adaptations
Increased PC stores, increased lactic acid tolerance, increased thickness of the ventricular myocardium, increased strength of ventricular contractions, increased stroke volume, myofibrillar hypertrophy.
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What is anaerobic threshold?
The intensity at which the anaerobic energy systems become dominant.
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What is lactate threshold?
The exercise intensity at which lactic acid starts to accumulate in the bloodstream because it is produced more quickly than it's removed.
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How does altitude training work?
Body has less oxygen so produces more red blood cells, so more haemoglobin is produced which means more O2 can be carried meaning the body has a larger O2 capacity.
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Negative effects of altitude training?
Time consuming as it's up to 4 weeks, benefits don't last very long, low intensity so VO2max won't be as high, can't train as hard or recover as quick.
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What are the 5 types of stretching?
Active (hold a stretch), Dynamic (involves movement), Passive (use a part of your body to hold a stretch), Ballistic (dangerous as it 'bounces' and can go over the elastic limit), PNF (taken to elastic limit and hold then bit further...)
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How does creatine work?
Acts as a form of extra energy in your body, it is stored as creatine phosphate and is used when the body needs energy quickly, also helps turn ADP to ATP.
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What are the negatives to creatine?
If used wrong it can cause bloating, can make people feel nauseous when they first start using it, stomach cramps if too much is taken at once.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the three types of energy systems?


Alactic (PC) (0-10) seconds, Lactic (10-60) and Aerobic (60+)

Card 3


What does the alactic system do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does the lactic system do?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does the aerobic system do?


Preview of the front of card 5
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