Short term psychological preparation

Short term psychological preparation
Chapter 2
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What is self efficacy?
Self confidence in a specific situation.
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What does Bandura's theory say our self efficacy is dependant on?
PEVV - Personal achievement (if we have been successful in past) - Emotional arousal (how energetic/ready we are) - Vicarious experience (if we watch someone do it) - Verbal persuasion (being told we can do it.
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What is anxiety?
Negative aspect of experiencing stress. It is the worry that is experience due to failure.
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What is trait anxiety?
Personality, consistent, stable and involves worrying all the time.
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What is state anxiety?
Situation dependant, temporary rush of anxiety, caused by threatening circumstances e.g. a penalty.
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What is somatic anxiety?
Physical effects; shaking, pacing, sweating, increased heart rate.
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What is cognotive anxiety?
Mental effects; low concentration, confusion, worrying, irrational thinking.
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What are the differences between the Drive Theory, The Inverted U Theory and The Catastrophe Theory?
Drive theory has a constant gradient and is a straight line. The inverted U is an inverted U and goes up then down. The catastrophe theory rises till a point and then drops completely.
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What is choking?
The inability to perform at optimum level, sudden impairment or failure of sports performance due to anxiety.
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What is stress?
The imbalance between our perception of how well we can meet the demands of the task against our actual ability to meet the demand of the task.
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What is a stressor?
Something that causes stress e.g. a big competition.
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Difference between distress and eustress?
Distress (choking) is impaired performance. Eustress is benefiting from stress.
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What is aggression?
Uncontrolled, intent to harm, outside rules of the game, reactive.
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What is assertion?
Controlled, no intent to harm, within rules, motivated.
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What can cause aggresion?
Unfair decisions, frustration from losing, stress, environment, contact sport, being intimidated which is a blow to self esteem.
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What are the four aggresion theories?
Instinct Theory (We are born with aggression) - FA Hypothesis (aggressive behaviour is inevitable when frustrated) - Aggressive Cue (comes from a learned cue) - Social Learning Theory (Aggression is learned from experience/coaches/role models)
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What is social facilitation?
The effect of others on performance.
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What is social facilitation and social inhibition?
social facilitation is making performance better and social inhibition is making performance worse.
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What are four types of people present at an event?
Audience (quiet), competitors, supporters (loud), co-actors (also performing).
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How will a novice and elite act differently to crowd?
Novice will react bad to people present and needs lower arousal levels. Elite will react better in front of people. and will need high arousal.
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How will a novice and elite cope with an audience?
Novice will expose to perofrmance before, down the event like it's not big, anxiety techniques. Elite will use rituals, techniques to counter it, breathing techniques.
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What is evaluation apprehension?
The perceived fear of being judged. The fear is made worse if there's a new audience, lack of confidence, audience are critical/experts.
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What is self loafing?
As group size increases, players lose motivation and rely on others.
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What is the Ringelmann Effect?
As group size increases, group performance decreases because of self loafing.
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How does playing at home give an advantage?
More fans, family/friends, comfort zone, more encouragement, increased success rate, more likely to be assertive.
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What is the proximity effect?
Closer to the crowd = greater impact on performance.
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What are strategies for coping with anxiety?
Self talk - Imagery - Cue utilisation - Pre-game routines - Visualisation - Relaxation techniques - Breathing techniques - Mental rehearsal.
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Card 2


What is self efficacy?


Self confidence in a specific situation.

Card 3


What does Bandura's theory say our self efficacy is dependant on?


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Card 4


What is anxiety?


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Card 5


What is trait anxiety?


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