Sociology revision on class, gender and sociological concepts

what is social imagination
'think ourselves away from familiar routines in order to study them', mills 1970
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what did mills argue?
the us middle class became dehumanize by ever-increasing rationalisation
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what can critique mills?
only based on middle class, neglecting and gender and race also
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define dehumanized society
mass society is unaware that their experiences are affected by political and social powers
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what are dehumanized societies unaware of?
their experiences are connected to wider social context
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is mills relative?
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after 9/11, the world developed a ' war against terror'
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what does this mean?
Mills claimed that our past historical events can shape today's society, for example we are still recovering from the previous years financial crisis
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what is relative poverty?
insufficient basic necessities for existence,eg. food, clothing, shelter
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what is absolute poverty?
extreme poverty, so low ordinary life activities are restricted, think of third world countries
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what are the stats for british poverty?
1/5 are below the poverty line, 3.6 mill children live in povery
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which societal groups are the most poverty stricken?
women and ethnic minorities
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what affects does poverty have?
poorer standard of education, poorer healthcare standards, life experiences are restricted
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Murray's view on poverty?
introduced the concept of deserving and undeserving poor
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Gidden's view on poverty?
the media representation of poverty leads to negative stereotypes
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how does Bourdieu define class?
a subjective location and relational explanation of economic life chance
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how does Weber define class?
dimension of historical variation in systems of inequality and relational explanation of economic life chance
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how does Marx define class?
foundation of economic oppression and explotation
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Marx view on class explained
history of class conflict, proletariat and bourgeoisie, alientation, determined by relation to economic production
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Weber's view explained
owners of land and non-owners, class in multidimensional, class isnt just economic
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What else does Bourdieu say about class?
that class is capital in more than one form, which is cultutal
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define cultural capital
embodied state, objectified state, institutionalized state
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George Monbiot says?
75% judges and 70% finance directors come from the 7% who attend private schools
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what does marx believe in?
conflict society between ruling and lower class
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what are the two classes in Marxism?
Proletariat and Bourgeoisie
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what is the difference in owner ship of the classes?
Upper class own everything, lower class own nothing but their labour
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what is capitalistic production?
production is privately owned by upper class, products of lower class labour sold at profit for upper class
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how did Marx view religion
Opium of the people used to keep the lower classes from revolting
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define alienation
the isolation of a member of society from the works of their labour due to their class
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what is feudalism
society worked or fought for land to own
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how did feudalism lead to capitalism?
means of production are achieved through violence or inherited from someone who used violence to achieve that land
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what did Durkheim believe in?
collective conscience, the laws of social facts, the norms and values of society
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what happened when value consensus was not achieved?
social anomie, the sense of normlessness
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what is social solidarity?
cohesion in society, giving sense of beloning
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what is pre-modern mechanical soliarity?
based on collective conscience, all have same life experiences, basic society
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what is modern organic solidarity?
based on inter-dependance, all have unique life experiences, complex society
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durkheim view on crime
result of anoime, some crime can be positive, can bring social change, reinforces solidarity, hatred for one enemy
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negative to Durkheim crime theory?
does not give right amount of crime, is crime always functional? what about a murder victim?
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Durkheim's theory on suicide?
as capitalism becomes more apparent, society becomes increasingly depressed
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owns life choices, no one else to blame but themselves
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excessive hope
has achieved wealth, always wanting more, always dissatisfied with life
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too much freedom
undermines social norms and values, anomie takes place
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religion is undermined, capitalism takes over but is unable to fill that void
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Weber's disenchantment is?
where industrial and scientific ideologies replace religious teachings
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what does sex refer to?
membership to one of two biological categories, male and female
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what does gender refer to?
the socially constructed roles deemed appropriate for males and females
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what is essentialist gender?
natural, universal, transhistorical and transcultural
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what is social constructionist?
the cultural diversity for the roles of men and women, varying over cultures and histories
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Margeret Mead case study
three tribes in papua new guniea, in 100 mile radius
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what was found in first tribe
all had stereotypical traits of a women
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what was found in the second tribe?
all had stereotypical traits of a man
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what was found in final tribe?
all had stereotypical traits for their gender
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how is gender socialised?
gender appropriate play, boys and cars and girls with dolls
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family example of gender socialisation
girls taught to be caring and close to parents, boys taught to explore and told 'dont be a girl when upset'
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define partriarchy
social structures in which men oppress, dominate and exploit women
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these areas are?
exploit wives labour at home, gender relations in the work place, male violence and patriarchal relations in state, sexuality, culture and cultural relations
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Young 1980 Throwing A girl
women are seen as physically handicapped in sexist society, taught to live within the patriarchal definition given to us
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what is the gender pay gap
women earn 15% less than man, women work part time more than men.
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what is the glass ceiling affect?
women can see the opportunities available but do not achieve them due to external factors
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Domestic violence
45% women experienced at least one incident, four or more incidents against the victim 89% chance its a women, 2 women a week are killed every week
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Negative to domestic violence stats?
men may be too afraid to report crimes, so is an unrealistic view of society
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Parsons' view on gender
gender constructed to maintain stable family units
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what are instrumental qualities?
Boys are taught qualities such as confidence and competitiveness, ready for the work place
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what are expressive qualities?
Girls are taught qualities such as empathy and sensitivity, ready for home life
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Critiques of Parsons' thesis?
only applies to nuclear family units, what about single or same sex parents?
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symbolic interactionist view on gender?
gender is not an inanimate object, it is something we 'do' with the clothes we wear for example
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what did mills argue?


the us middle class became dehumanize by ever-increasing rationalisation

Card 3


what can critique mills?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


define dehumanized society


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what are dehumanized societies unaware of?


Preview of the front of card 5
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