# Study Skills

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- Created by: aarafa11
- Created on: 07-01-20 17:16

What is qualitative data

method of observation to gather non-numerical data.

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Types of qualitative data

nominal, ordinal, (binary)

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What is nominal

Variables with NO order or ranking. E.g: race or gender

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What is ordinal

Can be quantitative or qualitative. Variables with an order and ranking. E.g: ranking 1-5 or ranking outstanding - disappointing

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How to collect qualitative

interviews, written statement and documents

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What is quantitative

measures of values or counts and are expressed as numbers

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Types of quantitative data

continuous data or discrete data

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How to collect quantitative data

surveys, observation, experiments and interviews

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What is contentious data

When the values in the set can take on ANY value. finite or infinite.

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What is discrete data

values are distinct and separate

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Difference between discrete and contentious

contentious can be measured and that discrete can be counted

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Example of continuous data

can be any number, even decimal, between an interval. [0,70] - can have 2.5. Height of a child

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Examples of discrete data

the numbers you can get on a dice - cannot get 2.5. number of language spoken. ordinal data are discrete

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Advantages of using old data for a research

useful, effortless, save time, ethical consideration have been done

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disadvantages of using old data for a research

no control on how data was collected, might not align with research aims, data needs scrutiny be fore use

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Disadvanage of continuous data

observer error can be reduced but CAN'T be ELIMINATED. Limits of instruments to measure

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When to use categorical nominal

when the data CANNOT be put into a meaningful order

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When to use categorical ordinal

when the data CAN be put into a meaningful order

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The significance of p value

lower than the p value = significant = data does NOT come from the same population

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what is p value

if sample being compared is coming from the same population, which you don't want

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What is p hacking

1)when you continue to collect data even when p<0.05. 2) data manipulation. Excessive stats

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How does collection too much data cause p- hacking

it becomes biased as the results are no longer significant

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how does too much stat cause p hacking

more result could happen by chance alone

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The types of error when comparing data

type 1 = false positive, type 2 = false negative

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What is a type 1 error when collecting data

WRONGLY accepting relationship. "guilty until proven innocent"

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What is a type 2 error when collecting data

FAILING to accepting relationship. "innocent until proven guilty"

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when to use chi-squared

for categorical data

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what are the conditions for chi-squared

must be an actual data (raw, proportional, ratio), simple random sample, catergorical, contigency table of <5

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what "actual" data is not included as a condition for chi-squared

percentage

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Types of test for a continuous data

a parametric test or a non-parametric test

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what makes it suitable to use a parametric test for a continuous data

for a normally distributed data, sample independent from 2 population, 2 population having similar variance, no outlier

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what makes it suitable to use a non-parametric test for a continuous data

any continuous data based on the ranks of the data values

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type of tests to know if data is normally distributed for it to be PARAMETRIC

t-test, ANOVA, regression

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what is a t-test

2 samples collected from the SAME continuous data

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which hypothesis should you disprove

null, p>0.05 to have a significant difference

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what does the t-test do

compares the mean and dispersion of 2 samples so you can establish if the data came from the same population

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what are the criteria for a t-test

continuous, 2 groups, independent, random samples, no outliers, normal distribution, similar variance

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what happens when the criteria for a t-test are NOT met

use a log-transformation, use a less sensitive test

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what is a log transformation

it address skewed data by decreasing the variability. this causes the data to be close to the normal distribution

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what are the less sensitive test when the criteria for the t-test ISN'T met

Welch's test (parametric), Mann-Witney U test or Kruskal Wallis test (both ordinal)

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when to use Mann-Witney U test (ordinal)

when t-test won't work. when there is 2 samples

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when to use Kruskal Wallis test (ordinal)

when t-test won't work. more than 2 samples

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what test can you do for ordinal data

Mann-Witney U, Kruskal Wallis, Likert scales

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When to use likert scales (ordinal)

when there is a 5-7 point scales, when the average is the standard interval data

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What is ANOVA

Analysis of variance

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Criteria for ANOVA

Observation independent. No outliers. Each sample is normally distributed. Variance if roughly equal

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How is each of ANOVA's sample normally distributed

large sample size (≥2), tested using graphically, tested using Shapiro-Wilk test, test the skewness, test using kurtosis

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the p value for each of the test required to know the normal distribution for ANOVA

Shapiro-Wilks :) p=0.150 :? 0.128 :/ 0.32 . Skewness :) 0.533 :? 0.662 :/ 1.105

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How would you compare to sets of continuous data on the same sample

regression (Pearson product moment correlation )

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Criteria for regression test

continuous

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Types of qualitative data

#### Back

nominal, ordinal, (binary)

### Card 3

#### Front

What is nominal

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

What is ordinal

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

How to collect qualitative

#### Back

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