Studying Society

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Society
a group of people who have common interests and a distinctive culture
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Culture
the whole way of life of a group of people passed from one generation to the next
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Law
a set of written rules regulating what may or may not be done by members of a society
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Norm
an informal rule that guides our behavior in a particular situation
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Role
patterns of behavior expected of people in different situations
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Values
the beliefs held by a person or social group that help to build a set of norms
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Social Science
the systematic study of society and of human relationships within society
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Social Policy
important decisions made by the government that aim to improve the conditions of people living in their society
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Theoretical Perspective
looking at a social issue through the eyes of one particular type of theorist
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Conensus
a general state of agreement between individuals or groups
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Conflict
a general state of disagreement between opposing groups
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Feminist
someone who believes that women should have the same status and opportunities as men
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Patriarchy
the idea that men dominate society and its institutions
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Marxist
someone who believes in the ideas of Karl Marx and sees the main divisions in society as being based on social class operating in a capitalist system
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Capitalism
industry and services are owned by private individuals who gain their profits from the labour power of their workers
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Quantitative Data
information that is presented as numbers which can be analysed using statistical methods
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Qualitative Data
information in the form of text or images, that is rich in description and detail
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Social Stratification
the way different groups in society are placed at different levels
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Social Class
people having the same social status measured by such things as occupations and income
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Ethnicity
the classification of people into groups that share the same culture, history and identity
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Gender
the social and cultural differences between the sexes - between femininity and masculinity
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Strata
bands or layers showing particular characteristics which are different from those above and below
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Status
the honour or prestige attached to a person's position in society
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Income
the money received by an individual in a period of time, for example, wages, interest on savings
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Constraint
not being able to do what you want; being restricted or limited
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Socialisation
the lifelong process of learning the skills, customs, attitudes, norms and values of your culture
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Social Control
the process by which people are persuaded to obey the rules and to conform
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Conformity
doing what it expected and behaving in a way that is in agreement with norms
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Family
a group of two or more people associated by birth, marriage, cohabitation, or adoption
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Canalisation
being channeled in a particular direction
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Formal Curriculum
what students learn in their timetabled lessons, for example, maths and English
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Hidden Curriculum
the ways in which the organisation of teaching, school regulations and routines shape pupil attitudes and behavior, that is, what students learn at school that is not taught in lessons
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Sanction
agreed reward for positive actions or penalty for negative actions
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Legislature
the section of the government that is responsible for making laws
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Judiciary
the section of the government that has the power to apply the law, that is, the court system including judges
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Poverty
means being poor (but this can be defined in many different ways)
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Welfare State
the government taking responsibility for the health and financial wellbeing of the population
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Relative Poverty
a situation in which someone cannot afford to possess the kind of things and participate in the kind of activities considered by members of their society to be a normal part of life
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Pressure Group
a group, usually concerned with a single issue, that applies pressure to try to bring about change
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Moral Panic
when media coverage of an issue leads to exaggerated public concern
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Media Amplification
blowing things out of proportion by over-reporting in the media
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Social Survey
a collection of information about members of a population. Can be carried out on the street, at home, in an organisation (school, workplace, etc.), by mail, by telephone, online
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Primary Data
data collected for the first time by the researcher for a particular piece of research
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Questionnaire
a set of questions used to gather information
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Secondary Data
data that exists prior to and independent from the researcher's own research
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Official Statistics
a set of statistics generated from data gathered by the government or other official organisations. Often used as secondary data in social research
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Respondent
someone who is providing the data for your research
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Sample
the group of people who have been selected for your survey
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Sampling Frame
a complete list from which your sample is selected
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Representative
your sample is not biased but the people are typical of those in the larger group
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Generalisations
feeling confident that your findings will reflect the views of everyone else who could have been asked
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Bias
not taking a natural view but favouring one side of an argument or debate
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Reliability
data is reliable if it can be repeated and consistently comes up with the same results
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Validity
data is valid if it gives a true picture of what is being studied
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Pilot Study
a study on a small scale before the main research is done
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Ethical Considerations
making sure that your research is not offending or harming anyone - that you are doing the right thing
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Anonymity
making sure that no names are mentioned in your finished report or in the data collection process
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Confidentiality
keeping personal details between you and the respondent
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Informed Consent
making sure that your respondents know what you are doing and agree to participate
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Gatekeeper
someone who gives permission for others to be involved in your research
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Triangulation
checnking the accuracy of data collected through one method by comparing it with data collected using another method
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Ethnography
looking at the whole way of life of a group, usually by using a variety of methods of data collection
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the whole way of life of a group of people passed from one generation to the next

Back

Culture

Card 3

Front

a set of written rules regulating what may or may not be done by members of a society

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

an informal rule that guides our behavior in a particular situation

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

patterns of behavior expected of people in different situations

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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