Superpowers Glossary

items which have economic value and may generate income
in the future
1 of 49
a group of ten Southeast Asian nations which was formed to
encourage greater cooperation and economic growth
between them
2 of 49
the policy of reducing government spending and debt
3 of 49
a 1951 security agreement that binds Australia, New Zealand
and the USA to co-operate on military matters in the Pacific
and beyond
4 of 49
two poles or centres
5 of 49
the collective term for Brazil, Russia, India and China (and,
latterly, South Africa) which were predicted (by writer Richard
Scase in 2000) to show rapid economic growth
6 of 49
where an external nation takes direct control of a territory,
often by force
7 of 49
items that are bought by the people who use them, rather
than bought in order to be turned into something else
consumer goods
8 of 49
the ideas, beliefs, customs and social behaviour of a group
or society
9 of 49
argues that developing countries remain dependent on
wealthier nations, and that their reliance on developed
economies is the cause of their poverty
dependency theory
10 of 49
the shift in employment from the primary and secondary
sectors into tertiary and quaternary
economic restructuring
11 of 49
a political and economic association of 28 member states (as
of 2016) whose principle is that economic strength insures
against poverty, and that adopts a policy of convergence to
reduce inequalities between its richest and poorest
members. It also extend
European Union
12 of 49
the strategies that a government puts in place to deal with
other countries
foreign policies
13 of 49
a group of 8 countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy,
Japan, Russia, UK and USA) which meets annually to
discuss economic development
14 of 49
an inter-governmental organisation which comprises 19
individual countries plus the EU. It brings together developed
and developing countries to discuss key economic issues
15 of 49
a theory developed by Halford John Mackinder which argued
that whoever controlled Europe and Asia (the world’s biggest
landmass) would control the world
mackinder heartland theory
16 of 49
the influence of geography (both human and physical) on
politics, especially international relations
17 of 49
the extent of the geographical distance that is influenced by a
product or activity
global reach
18 of 49
the expression of a country’s will or influence through
coercive measures, including economic sanctions and
military force or threat
hard power
19 of 49
the area of land which Halford John Mackinder believed to be
pivotal for controlling the world
20 of 49
a country or state that is dominant over others
21 of 49
the right to protect a person or company’s artistic works or
inventions, without them being copied by somebody else
intellectual property rights
22 of 49
a group whose members represent over 120 countries which
monitors publications and assembles evidence, enabling UN
members to understand the risks created by climate change,
and its impacts
23 of 49
the judicial branch of the UN, which settles disputes between
UN member countries and advises on international law
24 of 49
an organisation involving several countries working together
on issues of common interest
25 of 49
a global organisation whose primary role is to maintain
international financial stability
26 of 49
a theory that believed that poverty was a trap; traditional
family values in poorer countries held economies back; and
that capitalism was the solution to poverty
modernisation theory
27 of 49
several poles or centres
28 of 49
when a company is transferred from private ownership to
ownership or control by the state
29 of 49
describes how even though less-developed countries may no
longer be directly ruled militarily, they are still controlled
indirectly through economic, cultural and political means
neo colonialism
30 of 49
a trade bloc consisting of the USA, Canada and Mexico, free trade but no free movement of people
31 of 49
the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation – an alliance which
uses political consultation and military means to protect its 28
member states
32 of 49
the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development – a global ‘think tank’ for 35 of the world’s
wealthiest nations which aims to promote policies to improve
economic and social prosperity
33 of 49
the first legally binding global climate deal, adopted by 195
countries at the UN’s Paris Climate Conference (COP21) in
December 2015
Paris Agreement
34 of 49
the granting of the exclusive right of ownership and
possession of intellectual property by a state to an inventor
for a fixed period of time
35 of 49
publications based on research that has been checked by
experts as being valid
peer reviewed
36 of 49
the opinions and preferences that a country has about
political values
37 of 49
a war instigated by a major power that is not always directly
involved in the fighting
proxy war
38 of 49
the power that arises from a country’s political and economic
influence, moral authority and cultural attractiveness
soft power
39 of 49
the lending by banks to low-income earners with insecure
jobs, who could never normally afford mortgages
sub prime lending
40 of 49
a country which has a large sphere of influence over many people or places
41 of 49
an agreement which requires all WTO members to protect
and enforce their intellectual property rights
42 of 49
one polar or centre
43 of 49
the part of the UN which is ultimately responsible for
preventing conflict. It has 15 members at any one time, but
the five permanent members – USA, UK, France, China and
Russia – can veto any resolution
UN security council
44 of 49
a cycle by which a situation continues to worsen or remain poor
vicious cycle
45 of 49
a cycle by which a situation continues to improve or remain
virtuous cycle
46 of 49
a theory which claims that core regions drive the world
economy and that peripheral areas (distant from the core and
lacking capital) rely on core regions to exploit their raw
materials. Therefore, unequal trade develops between them
Wallerstein world systems theory
47 of 49
a global organisation which uses bank deposits placed by the
world’s wealthiest countries to provide loans for development
in other countries
world bank
48 of 49
a global organisation which looks at the rules for how
countries trade with each other, wants to liberalise trade
49 of 49

Other cards in this set

Card 2


a group of ten Southeast Asian nations which was formed to
encourage greater cooperation and economic growth
between them



Card 3


the policy of reducing government spending and debt


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


a 1951 security agreement that binds Australia, New Zealand
and the USA to co-operate on military matters in the Pacific
and beyond


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


two poles or centres


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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