What is a tectonic hazard?
natural events that have the potential to harm people or property
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What is a disaster?
the realisation of a hazard
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What is the hazard risk equation?
risk = hazard x vulnerability/capacity to cope
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Pressure and Release Model layout?
Root causes, Dynamic pressures, unsafe conditions, natural hazard
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Example of a root cause?
poor governance
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Example of a dynamic pressure?
lack of education
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Developing tectonic hazard example
Haiti 2010 7.0 magnitude HDI 0.48 200,000 deaths
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Emerging tectonic hazard example
Sichuan Province China 2008 8.0 magnitude HDI 0.73 69,000 deaths
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Developed tectonic hazard example
Japan Tohoku 2011 9.0 magnitude HDI 0.89 16,000 deaths
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What earthquakes are the most dangerous?
Subduction zone earthquakes
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What is liquefaction?
liquefying of land after earthquake shaking, causing it to sink
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What scale measures intensity of groundshaking?
Modified Mercalli Scale
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What scale measures the total amount of energy released?
Moment Magnitude Scale
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What scale measures size of the seismic waves?
Richter Scale
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What factors increase hazard risks?
population growth, ageing infrastructure and very old/young population
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Factors of governance affecting risk?
planning, environmental consideration, corruption, basic needs, preparation
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Factors of geography affecting risk?
population density, urbanisation, isolation and accessability
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What advantages do developed countries have during a disaster?
advanced insurance, government run preparations, monitoring of volcanoes, land use zoning
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What is a mega disaster?
high magnitude and high impact infrequent event
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What are some characteristics of multiple hazard zones?
tectonically active, unstable, major storm tracks, suffer from climate perturbations
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Examples of a hydro-meteorological hazard
drought, flood and storm
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What is prediction?
Knowing when and where a hazard will strike
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What is forecasting?
the percentage chance of a hazard ocurring
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What are seismic gaps?
areas that have some sort of tectonic activity overdue
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How do they predict volcanic erruptions?
magma chambers rise, seismometers record magma movement, gas spectrometers
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Four parts of the hazard cycle?
Response, Recovery, Mitigation and preparedness
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What are the steps of modification?
Modify event, Modify vulnerability, Modify loss
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What is land use zoning?
planning construction in areas which are at less risk
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What are aseismic buildings?
cross-bracing buildings and deep foundations
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What is a tsunami defence?
sea wall providing sense of security
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What are lava diversions?
Channels, barriers and watercooling
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a disaster?


the realisation of a hazard

Card 3


What is the hazard risk equation?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Pressure and Release Model layout?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Example of a root cause?


Preview of the front of card 5
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