The Cognitive Approach - Keywords

= studying and reporting thought processes
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Multistore Model Memory
= explains memory in terms of three stores: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory
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= a cluster of related facts based on previous experiences and used to generate future expectations
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Cognitive process
= the way in which information is used and interpreted in the brain (e.g. perception, attention, recognition)
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Cognitive-behavioural therapy
= a treatment which combines both cognitive behavioural approaches
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Cognitive restructuring
= the therapist questions the client’s evidence for their perceptions, with the aim of altering their thinking
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Cognitive triad
= explanation of depression by Beck; negative thoughts about the self, the world and the future
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Behavioural activation
= A therapeutic technique which helps people change their behaviour
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Demand characteristics
= When participants in a study alter their behaviour to fit their idea of what the research is investigating
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= where a participant’s response is temporarily biased in favour of one outcome due to some feature of the design of the study
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Leading question
= = a question which implies the expected response through the wording used
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Ecological validity
= the extent to which the findings of a study can be generalised to actual, ‘real life’ situations/ environments
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Confounding variable
= an extraneous variable which varies alongside the independent variable, so that it is not certain which one is causing the dependent variable to change
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Source monitoring
= the ability to identify the source of the information (e.g. whether it’s from the original event or subsequent suggestions)
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Pre-event memory
= = information already held prior to an event, which could affect the recall of that event (e.g. schemas)
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Post-event memory
= information supplied after the event, which could affect the recall of the event (e.g. leading questions)
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Proactive interference
= when a past memory interferes with the ability to recall a recent memory
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Retroactive interference
= when a more recent memory interferes with the ability to recall a past memory
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= motivated forgetting, usually in relation to an emotional, traumatic event, where the memory gets pushed into the unconscious
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Flashbulb memory
= a very vivid and long lasting memory, enhanced by surprise, or distinctiveness or emotion
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Cognitive interview
= a method of questioning designed to increase the amount and accuracy of recollection
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Cognitive neuroscience
= a field of study to pinpoint the biological mechanisms involved in cognitive processes
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= an over-simplified, person-related schema; assumptions are made about a person based one just one or two features which are then generalised to predict other qualities about them e.g. dumb blondes
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Mechanistic approach
= an approach that treats human behaviour as being machine-like
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Multistore Model Memory


= explains memory in terms of three stores: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory

Card 3




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Card 4


Cognitive process


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Card 5


Cognitive-behavioural therapy


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