The Second Crusade

what were the main aims/motivations of the second crusade?
retake Edessa, growing Muslim belief in jihad that was uniting the Muslims, remission of sins, religious enthusiasm, preaching of Bernard Clairvaux
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what had happened at the battle of the field of blood and when was this?
1119 - Antioch was defeated, this was a major defeat and made the crusaders' future look uncertain. It also helped unify the Muslims
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what happened to Edessa and when?
fell to Zengi in 1144
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who was the pope, what did he issue to call for the second crusade and when was this?
Pope Eugenius III issued the Quantum Predecessors in 1145 (2 days after Edessa captured)
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What did Pope Eugenius III see the crusade as an opportunity for?
an opportunity for the papacy to regain control of the crusading movement which had been lost at the end of the first crusade.
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How did Bernard of Clairvaux encourage people to go on crusade?
he toured with king Louis VII by his side. He read out the Quantum praedecessors as part of his sermon. His appeal was directly to the knightly class to avoid another people's crusade.
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how large was the recruitment to the second crusade?
much larger than the first crusade
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how did the byzantine empire respond to the 1145 papal bull?
Emperor Manuel I saw it as a threat and did not support the crusade.
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Who led the second crusade?
King Louis VII of France and King Conrad III of Germany
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Why would there be tensions with two kings going on crusade?
disputes over who should have authority as they both stood at the same level of authority due to both being kings
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Why did Louis VII go on crusade?
serious + spiritual mindset, uncle + father-in-law went on 1st crusade. besieged a town and the people took refuge in the church but it caught fire from the burning arrows fired at the castle, their screams as most died haunted Louis - forgiveness
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Did Louis VII have the ability to lead the second crusade?
he had a spiritual and serious mindset, but he didn't expect to become king and so had no military ability as he was raised to go into the church
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Why did Conrad III go on crusade?
he had been to the holy land before and had sworn to take the cross but didn't so wanted to go back and take the cross.
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Where was the main meeting place for the two forces?
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why was the land route the preferred option?
cheaper, supplies were available in France for those travelling from there and they could forage in Germany
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why would taking the land option cause less issues for the first crusade?
transport of horses by sea was problematic, many French knight lived far inland so not experienced in getting ships ready, Roger of Sicily offered to help with sea transport but was an enemy of Conrad and Manuel
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Who were the Wends?
a pagan Slav race who lived beyond the north-east border of Germany
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Why did Bernard of Clairvaux and Pope Eugenius III want the wends converted to Christianity?
so they didn't have to fight them and so Conrad wouldn't have trouble
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how did the conversion happen?
Bernard proposed that they should be given the choice of death or conversion. The Wend prince did not wait to be attacked and moved against the German leaders. The Wends agreed to be baptised, and the Christians claimed success.
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How did the Wend's conversion impact the second crusade?
the whole episode deprived the crusaders of troops but it ensured that potentially troublesome elements of the German nobility were kept occupied while Conrad was away. The impact that went to the holy land was quite limited
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When was the siege of Lisbon?
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How did the siege of Lisbon happen?
200 ships with 10,000 men left Kent to sail to Jerusalem to help in the crusadebut when they arrived in Lisbon, they were persuaded by Alfonso Henriques to join him in attacking the Moors there to set up an independent Portuguese state.
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Why did those from Kent agree to help at the siege of Lisbon?
Alfonso Henrich argued the Pope had authorised it and promised they could keep all the loot once Lisbon was taken
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How did the siege of Lisbon impact the second crusade?
some crusaders chose to stay, those who left became involved in the siege of Tortosa, some stayed there too, those who finally reached the holy land were a very small proportion of those who set out
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who were there tensions between within the crusading army
tensions between the Germans and the Slavs, while the french-speaking troops were disliked by all.
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Why could the tensions not be resolved by the leaders?
each were only loyal to their own king
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Why did Manuel become frustrated with Conrad when they reached Constantinople?
Manuel I had sent troops to keep order but the Germans killed them
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why was the French army more successful in their travels to Constantinople?
they were smaller than the German army and better disciplined.
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Was the byzantine empire in a stronger position since the first crusade?
the Turks were still raiding the byzantine borders and Muslim disunity was still working to their advantage so Manuel I was no more secure than Alexius I had been when the first crusade arrived
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why were the Byzantines more fearful of the crusaders?
Manuel I feared the threat of Roger of Sicily, concerned about the exact aims of the crusaders, concerned crusaders might attack Constantinople so wanted to move them through there as fast as possible
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when did Louis Vii arrive in Antioch and why did Conrad not arrive?
Louis VII arrived in March 1148 but Conrad did not arrive as he had returned to Constantinople to recover from illness (he returns later)
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Why did crusaders abandon the plan to recapture Edessa?
Nur ad-Din had inflicted a lot of damage on Edessa when he captured it, Raymond may have been aiming to take Edessa for himself whom Louis was increasingly hostile towards due to the rumours that Raymond was having an affair with his niece, Eleanor
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What was the council at Acre?
a council held to decide where to attack instead of Edessa that was a lost cause
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what two places did they consider attacking?
Damascus and Ascalon
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why did they consider attacking Ascalon?
held only port on Levantine coast still held by Muslims, helpful intake of supplies for the crusaders and depriving the Muslims of this port for the intake of supplies would weaken the Muslim forces
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why did they consider attacking Damascus?
major Muslim power nearest Jerusalem so would help protect Jerusalem from attack, noted for its orchards and grain fields, watered by River Amana, helping food supplies, had skilled weavers and metal workers for weapons
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where did they decide to attack?
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how long did the siege of Damascus last?
4 days (24th - 28th July 1148)
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the crusaders started on one side of the walls of Damascus and then moved position - why was this a bad decision?
they started on advantageous position on south side amid orchards close to water, fearing reinforcements from the Turks they moved to another side where they thought walls were weaker, but walls were taller and there was no water supply
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why did they have no choice but to withdraw
the muslim reinforcements arrived at the vacated area where the crusaders had been, they could not take Damascus from where they were so they were forced to withdraw
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how did bribery help the second crusade to fail?
conrad believed the settlers in Jerusalem had been bribed to give up the siege, there was suspicion that the governor of Damascus had encouraged nobles of Jerusalem to retreat by giving them money
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how did the strength of the Muslim forces help the second crusade to fail?
old rivalry between Muslim rulers overcome, less Muslim disunity
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how did the weakness of the crusader army help the second crusade fail?
lack of clear aim once the retaking of Edessa abandoned, divisions between Conrad and Louis which resulted in lack of cooperation
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how did influence from crusaders help the second crusade fail?
Raymond of Antioch attracted much ill-feeling
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Card 2


what had happened at the battle of the field of blood and when was this?


1119 - Antioch was defeated, this was a major defeat and made the crusaders' future look uncertain. It also helped unify the Muslims

Card 3


what happened to Edessa and when?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


who was the pope, what did he issue to call for the second crusade and when was this?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did Pope Eugenius III see the crusade as an opportunity for?


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