UCAS Geography

Sea level rise by 2100?
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Examples of human subsidence
construction, mining, overuse of groundwater
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How much does subsidence account for?
5.6mm per year
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How long are glacials?
90,000 years
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What was the most recent glacial?
Devensian Glacial
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local change
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global change
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Sea level rise since devensian glacial?
21cm by 1870
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How high above sea level are the Maldives?
2.3 m
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How high is the Maldives Sea wall?
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What causes storm surges?
tropical cyclones and depressions
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What is a depression
an area of low air pressure moving from west to east
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Example of a storm surge
North Sea storm surge 2013, 15 deaths 80mph winds
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Where do tropical cyclones affect
just north and south of the equator
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How high is Bangladesh above sea level?
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Example of vegetation removal
Bangladesh mangrove forest 71%
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How effective is a mangrove forest?
100m of mangrove reduces wave height by 40%
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Features causing rapid coastal retreat
long wave fetch, soft geology, weak structure eg faults and joints, strong longshore drift
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Example of something effecting coastal retreat
Holderness coast, groynes at hornsea, boulder clay, 1.25m erosion per year
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How does weather effect erosion rates?
destructive waves in winter, storm surges plus spring tides increases erosion, wind direction
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How does vegetation reduce erosion?
stabilises sediment, reduces wind speed/energy, reduces wave height, builds up sediment
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estuarine coastline, halosere succession, flocculation, blue-green algae, gut weed
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What is flocculation
mixing of salt and fresh water to stick clay particles together
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sandy coastline, psammosere succession, pioneer plants sea rocket, marram grass colonizes
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process of dune colonisation
embryo dune, fore dune, yellow dune, grey dune
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what is post glacial adjustment?
when the earth rises and rebounds after sinking due to weight of ice sheets
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What is happening to the uk glacial status?
'pivoting' north is rising and south is sinking
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What is a submergent coastline?
a coastline that has not experience post glacial adjustment, floods fjords and rias
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How much does sea level rise per year?
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What is thermal expansion?
volume of sea increases as temperature increases, heat expands water molecules
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Examples of igneous rock?
granite basalt
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Examples of metamorphic rock?
slate marble gneiss
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Examples of sedimentary rock?
limestone and sandstone
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What does erosion resistance depend on?
reactivity to chemicals, rock structure, clastic or crystalline
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What does permeability increase?
pore water pressure in rocks
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What are sandy and estuarine coastlines called?
coastal plains
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What are primary coasts?
coasts caused by land processes
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What are secondary coasts?
coasts cause by marine processes
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What is the rock strata?
layers of rock exposed
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What is deformation?
tilting and folding for tectonic activity
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Example of discordant coastline
west cork, bantry bay
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Example of concordant coastline
lulworth cover, portland limestone
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What is wave refraction?
when wave reaches shallow area, crest change direction, height increases
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Examples of human subsidence


construction, mining, overuse of groundwater

Card 3


How much does subsidence account for?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How long are glacials?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What was the most recent glacial?


Preview of the front of card 5
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