ussr ; economy ; stalin ; five-year plans + industry

what are the five-year plans and stlain control of economy sometimes referred to as?
'stlain's revolution
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what did fear of foreign invasion lead stalin to declare about these plans?
'we are 50 to 100 years behind the advanced countries,. we must make good this distance in 10 years. either we do it or we shall be crushed'
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thus industrialisation was patriotic and formed an important part of stalin's cry for?
'socialism in one country'
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decision to abandon NEP came about after which party congress in which year?
fifteenth in 1927
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how did they aim to make USSR self-sufficient?
use most advanced technology and emphasise heavy industry
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what did language of plans reflect?
that of mass military campaign
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as people were encouraged to do which three things?
'storm' / 'conquer' on many 'fronts'
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industrialisation placed under direction of?
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targets set for which industries?
those the governemnt saw as priority for modernisation
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what were set up to co-ordinate differing branches of industry?
people's commissariats
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and party officials were used at factory level to ensure what?
orders from centre were carried out
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how did five-year plans see drive against nepmen?
small businesses and shopkeepers forced to join state co-operatives
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with factories there was a concerted campaign against who?
'bourgeois experts'
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what was this government policy most likely encouraged by?
expert's doubts that 5yp targets could be met
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what would removal of bourgeois experts also open?
more job opportunities to loyal, if less well-trained, communist members
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in '28 what had there been a series of against these people?
show trials
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what were they accused of?
'wrecking' and deliberate sabotage
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often in collaboration with?
foreign agents
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but what did the loss of this group hinder?
development of 5yp
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- first five-year plan
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what were the years?
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concentrated on rapid growth in?
heavy industry (i'm so surprised? stalin usually hates that! life's crazy!)
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in particualr which three things?
coal / steel / iron
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an approach recommended by who?
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what did superindustrialisers believe?
agricultural surpluses should be seized to invest in industry and heavy industry be given most priorty
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what types of industries were neglected?
consumer like textiles and household goods
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what was original justification for this focus?
need to build up industrial infrastructure of factories, communication and plant before other sectors could flourish
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- second five-year plan
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initially set higher targets for?
consumer goods
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but as '30s progressed what out of ussr event redirected focus?
rise of hitler
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where focus was redirected to?
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which meant what got priority?
heavy industry
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- third five-year plan
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launched in?
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geared even more directly toward production of?
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to meet?
threat of germany
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were targets ofthe five-year plans often met?
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as it became not about fulfilling plan but?
overfulfilling it
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not to do so was a sign of?
lack of commitment to revolution
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- the first plan
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industrial expansion under first 5yp was largely result of making more efficient use of?
existing factories and equipment
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new plants built but didn't mae a significant impact on production until after?
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large industrial centres such as which two examples were built from scrach?
magnitogorsk / gorki
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in '29 how many ppl lived @ magnitogorski?
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three years later that number had increased to?
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facilities here were primitive and where did most workers live?
in temporary huts and tents
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what did volunteer workers often have to rely on?
revolutionary attitudes and socialist beliefs for motivation
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which was particularly neccessary bc even by '33 what % of moscow workforce was skilled?
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and everywhere else?
waayyyyyy lowerrrr
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government relied on use of what made up of best workers?
'shock brigades'
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who was the well known and completely real model worker?
alexei stakhanov
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a coal miner from where?
donbass region
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who could mine how many times the average amount of coal?
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what were two examples of rewards for model workers?
new flat / bigger rations
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what happened to slackers?
held up to ridicule
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many sites had statues to who boiult?
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to inspire the workers to greater revolutionary achievements
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as a last resort the government could always use what for large building projects?
slave labour
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where were there large quantities of precious economic resources ?
siberia and cold remote regions
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nobody would volunteer so the answer was to use large population in the?
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what was the most notorious slave labour project?
White Sea Canal
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which employed how many prisoners by '32?
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in the winter of '31-'32 how many prisoners died on the project?
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what was the original depth to be?
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what was it rlly?
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speed up contruction and reduce costs
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which meant what for the canal?
useless for anything but small barges
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seems to illustrate what attitude of stalin and his government?
human cost and quality weren't important as kong as aim achieved
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not only workers but also who else under severe pressre with the increasingly unrealistic targets?
factory managers
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what did they have to start doing to get resources?
ambushing other factories' resource trucks
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or what could they also do?
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what infamous part of the ussr found its roots in the '30s policy requirements?
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in rush to fulfil targets what was often sacrificed?
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how many tractors was the stalingrad tractor factory supposed to be producing a month?
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in what year?
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how many did it manage in that june?
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most of these broke down within how long?
3 days
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- the second and third five-year plans
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what did the second plan make more use of after the chaotic planning of the first?
technical expertise
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what made results extra impressive?
new industrial centres starting production
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what were the years of the second plan?
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in particular production of which fossil fuel grew significantly during this plan?
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what other industry made progress?
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but what fossil fuel remained disappointing?
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what did the tirhd plan become heavily focused on due to issues abroad?
defence industry
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what were the dates of the third five-year plan?
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plans developed traditional industrial centres such as which key cities?
moscow and leningrad
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and new centres in which parts of the country?
less developed
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under the second and third plans much of new industry was located where?
remoter ussr areas
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for example where?
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this acted as regional development to promote what?
more even distribution of industrialisation
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in addition, deliberate policy of locating east of where?
ural mountains
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industry would be safer from west attack
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despite problems with official figures what is there no doubt about?
progress was made
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one historian drew attention to some issues in official production figures indicating what about production of machinery?
greatly overfulfilled the plans
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despite what?
less success in metal production
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why does this appear odd?
there's an obvious connection between these two industries
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nonetheless which two places was there rapid growht in?
engineering industry and transportation
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where was there expecially enormous industrial production growth?
heavy industry
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'28-'41 saw a growth rate of what & overall?
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but what was the issue with progress?
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what fold increase was tehere in steel?
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and in coal production?
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what dam project was an important example in completion of projects?
dnieper dam project
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nonetheless which industry suffered?
consumer goods
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what happened to production of textiles during first five-year plan?
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and what industry was virtually ignored?
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what was shortage of consumer goods made worse by?
fact that collectivisation of agriculture destrouaed alot of cottage industry
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which two consumer goods industries made sufficient progress?
footwear production + food processing
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whihc three types of factories were established in many towns?
bakeries / ice-cream . meat-packing
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chaos in which two areas have ofthen been highlighted as limiting factors?
implement and planning
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why did rigid adoption of command economy lead to failures?
planners in moscow had little understanding of situation in far out plaes of ussr
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result was that what haooeened to many resources?
wasted bc inappropriate
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in '37 many of which people were also removed in purgesslwoing economy
managers and technicians
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what did fear of foreign invasion lead stalin to declare about these plans?


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thus industrialisation was patriotic and formed an important part of stalin's cry for?


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