What is a batch process?
A chemical that is needed in small amounts would use this process, production does not go on all the time
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What is a continuous process?
A chemical that is needed in a large amount would use this process and the production goes on all the time
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Why use a continuoues process?
Ammonia uses it because it is needed in large amounts
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Why use batch process?
Pharmaceutical drugss use it becasue only a small amount is needed
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How do you extract drugs from plants?
Crushing (breaks the cell wall), dissolving (separates wasted materials), filtering (gets rid of remains), chromatography (separate the chemicals)
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Why are pharmaceutical drugs so expensive?
Becasue they have to be tested thoroughly, marketed, researched, cost of labour/raw materials etc
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Why is a high atom economy good?
It means it is a more sustainable process, fewer resources are needed and less waste is produced
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What is an atom economy?
A way of measuring the amount of atoms that are wasted or lost when a chemical is made
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What affects the percentage yeild?
Reactants might form other unexpected products, some products might be lost when transfered, the reaction might be reversible and that the reaction is incomplete
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What is the theoretical yeild?
The maximum mass of products expected from the reaction using reacting masses
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What is the percentage yeild?
This shows how much product was actually made compared with the amount of products expected
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What is the (actual) yeild?
The mass of the product that is actually obtained from the real chemical reaction
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How do you work out the atom economy?
The total of useful products divided by the total mass relative formula mass of all the products
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What is conservation of mass?
In a chemical reaction, atoms cannot be destroyed or created. Instead, the atoms inside the reactants swap places to make new compounds - the products
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What is relative atomic mass?
Ar, it is the mass of one atom of an element and has no units
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What is relative formula mass?
Mr, it is calculated by adding together the Ar values of all atoms in molecules formula
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How do you calculate a reacting mass equation?
1. You balance the equation 2.
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What is an advantage of continuous?
The rate of production is high, the shut down times are rare, few people are needed to run the factory, ease of automation is relatively easy
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What is an explosion?
A catalyst is omething added to a reaction to speed it up. It lowers the activation energy for a reaction to take place but, is not used up
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What does a larger surface area mean?
The larger he surface area the more exposure to the acid, resulting in more collisions therefore increasing the rate of reactions
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What is the rate of rections equations?
rate = 1/ average time
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What is the rate of reaction from graphs?
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What is a limiting reactants?
A reaction that stops when all the particles of one of the reactants are used up. The limiting reactant is the on that is used up at the end of the reaction
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What is the temperature collision theory?
The temperature affects the rate of reaction because the particles move quicker as the temperature increases. This is because the acid and catalyst particles have more kinetic energy so collision are more likely,rate of reaction increases
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What is the concentration collision theory?
As the oncentration increases, there will be more acid particles which means collisions will be more likely so the rte of reaction will increase because they are in the same volume
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What is the pressure collision theory?
The same amount of particles are in a more confined space therefore collisions are more likely so the rate of reaction will increase
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What is thermal decomposition?
The chemical breakdown of a compound into at least two other compounds under the effect of heat
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What are two forms of calcium carbonate?
Limestone and marble
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What is concrete and how do you make it?
It is an artificial rock. You mix cement, sand, gravel and water and then allow to set
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What is reinforced concrete?
It has steel rods inside it and is therefore much stronger than normal concrete. The concrete is poured around steel rods and left to set
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What is a solvent?
It is the part of the mixture that thins the paint so that it spreads more easily
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What is a binding medium?
It sticks the pigments to the surface being painted by hardening when it reacts with oxygen
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What is a pigment?
The substance that gives paint its colour
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What is a colloid?
A mixture where one substance is dispersed evenly in another substance. The components are to small to settle
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What is a water-based paint?
are emulsions and their solvent is water. All the ingredients are dissolved. As the water evaporates, the paint dries, and the other ingredients join to form a tough, coloured layer on a painted surface
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What is a oil-based paint?
They are colloids. The solvent is a hydrocarbon oil which evaporates as the paint dries and the oxygen in the air oxidises the hydrocarbon. This then forms a very tough layer.
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What is thermochromic pigment?
Pigment that change colour at different temperatures e.g. mugs If added to acrylic paint that will change colour e.g. blue+yellow=green but if not at room temperature the blue will turn colourless and the green changes colour
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What is phosphorescent pigment?
They glow in the dark by absorbing light during the day and emitting it when it goes dark
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What are plate tectonics?
There are two types of plate tectonics - Oceanic plates, heaviest and the Continental plates, lighter. When the plates collide, the oceanic plate sinks below the continental plate and as it sinks, it pulls more of the oceanic plates down
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What is cracking?
Converts longer hydrocarbon chains into shorter, more useful ones, including alkenes
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What conditions are required for cracking?
High temperature and a catalyst
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How do you test for alkenes?
You put liquid into the bromine water and if the water turns colourless then it is an alkene
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What is addition polymerisation?
When two alkenes monomers, join together to make a polymer
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a continuous process?


A chemical that is needed in a large amount would use this process and the production goes on all the time

Card 3


Why use a continuoues process?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why use batch process?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How do you extract drugs from plants?


Preview of the front of card 5
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